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Chapter 17-19

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John Tyler
not part of the Whig plan. Whig leaders Henry Clay and Daniel Webster had intended to control President Harrison. But, Tyler had a strong independent streak; VP of Harrison then took over; his ideas did align much more with the Democrats than with the Whigs; ended independent Treasuries (Clay create); did not create a new U.S. Bank; vetoed higher tariff bill but accepted lower bill; annex Tx through Joint Resolution bill;
John Slidell
sent by Polk as an envoy to Mexico City to make an offer to purchase California for $25 million, but was coldly turned away
Lord Ashburton
settled Arstook War peacefully with the Webster-Ashburton Treaty between Daniel Webster
Zachary Taylor
score victories, notably at Buena Vista where Santa Anna was defeated again during Mex. War;
Nicholas P. Trist
a diplomat sent by Polk w/ Scott's army; to secure a peace deal as soon as Polk's demands were met; deal, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
James K. Polk
1844, Polk ran for president on a very clear pro-expansion platform; 1845 Texas was invited to join the U.S. and did so; prevent Britain from influencing America, but Mex was upset; Later declare war on Mex. for Cali; defeated Henry Clay for president; laid out a 4-point mission for himself and the nation (then achieved all 4 points in 4 years): 1.Lower the tariff and his Sec. of Treasury Robert J. Walker lowered the tariff from 32% to 25% w/ South Help. 2.Restore the independent treasury (put U.S. money into non-government banks). 3.Clear up the Oregon border issue split the land at the 49th parallel (excluding Vancouver) 4.Get California first and main purpose during Mex. War w/ help of Kearny, Fremont, Sloat;
Stephen W. Kearny
1,700 troops marched from Ft. Leavenworth southward to the present New Mexico/Mexico border, then he headed west to San Diego; marked present Mex. U.S. border;joined in California by Cpt. John C. Fremont who took California; Commodore Sloat came by boat with the U.S. Navy
David Wilmot
proposed the Wilmot Proviso suggesting the Mexican Cession lands be closed to slavery
Robert Gray
claim land in oregon along the coast and Columbia River and Lewis and Clark's expedition into the heart of the Oregon territory
John C. Fremont
joined Kearny in California and took California; named "Bear Flag Republic"; Commodore Sloat came by boat with the U.S. Navy
William Henry Harrison
Whig president elected in 1840, suddenly died after only one month in office
Santa Anna
exiled in Cuba but hinted that if he was allowed to return to Mexico he'd double-cross his country; Polk allowed him back and he betrayed Polk; Buena Vista where was defeated by Zach Taylor;
Joint resolution
Tyler signed it annnexing Tx before leaving office
Manifest Destiny
the people essentially voted for expansion; spread democracy;
Fiscal Bank
U.S. Bank suggestion from Whigs; vetoed by Tyler
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
settled Arstook War peacefully between Daniel Webster and Lord Ashburton; drew a line generally at the Aroostook River and roughly split the difference of land; U.S. also got the Mesabi range in Minnesota helped supply the American industrial revolution's need for iron ore to make steel;
spot resolutions
Abraham Lincoln wanted to know which nation owned the disputed land in Mex.
Tariff of 1842
tariff passed by Tyler b/c lower than first suggestion; prevented a really bad depression;
conscience whigs
...
Bear Flag revolt
Fremont joined Kearny in California and took California naming it Bear Flag;
Caroline
U.S. ship; attacked above Niagara Falls by Canadians; Mcleod arrested for involvement, but canada threat war; *British helped 130 slaves after took over Creole
Hudson's Bay Company
fur trade company owned by Britain in Oregon
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Trists deal with Mex. after Mex. war; America got land, the Mexican Cession, entailing California, but also the future states of NV, AZ, NM, CO, and UT; U.S. would pay $15 million for the land, and assume $3.5 million in debts;
Californios
...
Liberty party
antislavery party that helped Polk win in Newyork
all of Mexico
Americans wondered why the U.S. would agree to half of Oregon but push for all of the Mexican lands; b/c Mex weak; American-Latin relations, a turning point for the bad
Aroostook War
Brit want to build a road in Canada, but america want the land;lumberjacks fighting on each side over who'd get to chop down the lumber; issue over Maine Canada border; settled peacefully with the Webster-Ashburton Treaty between Daniel Webster and Lord Ashburton
Walker Tariff
Polk's tariff lowering it
Wilmot Proviso
Daniel Wilmot proposed suggesting the Mexican Cession lands be closed to slavery; House passed it twice, but failed in Senate
Whigs
Support Harrison; disliked Tyler; suggest Bank plan but vetoed; suggest protective tariff 2; Liked Henry Clay;
Oregon fever
claimed by four nations: Spain, Russia, England, and the U.S; first 2 dropped claims; England occupation north of the Columbia River; claim based on the exploration of Capt. Robert Gray along the coast and Columbia River and Lewis and Clark's expedition into the heart of the Oregon territory; 1840's Americans followed the Oregon Trail out west; England realized there were more Americans in Oregon than Brits so split the land at the 49th parallel (excluding Vancouver
Maine
canada wanted a road through it; Arstook war ended this prob between America and Brit Canada; America receive 7/12 of it
Rio Grande
Pres. Polk ordered 4,000 troops to border; Texas-Mexico border was the Nueces River; Mexico crossed the Rio Grande and a skirmish followed ; Polk asked Congress to declare war and Congress quickly did so;
Winfield Scott
("Old Rough and Ready") was sent to Mexico City to deliver the coup d'grace. He retraced Hernando Cortez's same path from Vera Cruz to Mexico City and likewise conquered the capital city; army accompany diplomat Trist;
lewis cass
election of 1848, Polk was ailing and would not run again; Democrats nominated; for popular sovereignty
Stephen A. Douglas
seconded Henry Clay; urged compromise in 1850; threw a wrench in the railroad plans. Being an Illinois senator, he wanted the railroad up north with Chicago as a major terminus; proposed to organize Kansas and Nebraska through the Kansas-Nebraska Act and move the transcontinental railroad up north;
Franklin Pierce
election of 1852, the Democrats nominated; Huge win w/ electoral vote; sent representatives to Ostend Belgium instead of going to war with Cuba; backed away from Ostend Manifesto b/c support slavocracy; Sent Cushing to set up trade in China;
Zachary Taylor
Whigs nominated in 1848; no official position on slavery; Became President; came under Seward influence; died suddenly;
John C. Calhoun
For the South during California free state conflict; argued for states' rights; wanted slavery to be left alone, the runaway slaves to be returned to the South, and state balance kept intact;
Winfield Scott
Whigs nominate in 1852; hero of the Mexican War; Hurt by Free soil party;
Martin Van Buren
nominated by Free Soil Pary in 1848; clearly against the expansion of slavery
Daniel Webster
For the North during California free state conflict; opposed to slavery's expansion; famous "Seventh of March" speech he urged the North to compromise on the issue; felt that the lands of the Mexican Cession were too dry to grow cotton and become free states; Urged Compromised in 1850
Matthew C. Perry
sent by U.S. to Tokyo in 1852-54 after Isolationism; mix of diplomacy and threat got Japan to open itself to trade in the Treaty of Kanagawa; sent by Fillmore
Harriet Tubman
was the most well-known "conductor" of the "railroad; snuck back into the South 19 times and led some 300+ slaves to freedom;
William H. Seward
Young Guard of NY; against slavery and argued that, when it came to slavery, Americans must follow a "higher law" could have cost the presidency in 1860; influenced Pres. Taylor;
James Gadsden
was sent to Mexico to work a deal for the land. The Gadsden Purchase bought the southern chunk of present Arizona and New Mexico for $10 million, a hefty price tag in comparison to other "purchases; help create Railroad in South; Railway in South b/c land was organized meaning any Indian attacks could be repelled by the U.S. Army and (2) geography—the plan was to skirt south of the Rocky Mountains;
Henry Clay
"Great Compromiser" and offered a compromise for California as a free state; seconded by a young Senator Stephen Douglas; urged both sides to make concessions; urged compromise in 1850
Millard Fillmore
Vice-President of Taylor took over as Pres. when he died; more open to compromise; sent Perry to Japan
William Walker
summer of 1856, Southerner try to take over Nicaragua; named himself president; legalized slavery, and wished for Pres. Pierce to annexed the region; Nicaraguans reclaimed their land and executed him
popular sovereignty
the people of a territory should decide and issue for themselves (Slavery); allowed politicians to take neutral stance during election 1848;
fillibustering
1850-51, two groups of "freebooters" or pirates including some leading Southerners) invaded Cuba; failed miserably
Free Soil party
Notable in 1848; emerged when many Northerners were upset that neither party took a position on the expansion of slavery; nominate Van Buren; clearly against the expansion of slavery; favored federal money for internal improvements and free land for settlers out west; attracted a wide mix of people: (a) folks upset over getting only 1/2 of Oregon, (b) people who didn't want blacks in the new lands, and (c) northern abolitionists who didn't like slavery; garnered 5% of the Northern vote (hurting Scott);
Fugitive Slave Law
supposed to "round up" runaways up North and ship them back South. This was largely not being done and the South took it as a personal offense; new one in 1850 was tougher; (a) runaway slaves weren't given "due process" rights if caught, (b) the official that handled the case received $5 for a slave's freedom but $10 for a slave's return, and (c) officials were demanded to catch runaway slaves despite their personal convictions on the matter;
conscience Whigs
...
personal liberty laws
Northerners hated being forced to catch slaves; local officials didn't have to chase and return fugitive slaves; 3.Southerners were outraged that the law was not enforced
Underground Railroad
a secret route from "station to station" that led many slaves to the North and eventually to Canada. Harriet Tubman was the most well-known "conductor" of the "railroad;
Compromise of 1850
Senate leaders Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and Stephen Douglas all urged the North to compromise; under Pres. Fillmore; Southern "fire-eaters" were still very much a against concession/compromise but calmer southerners out vote and passed it; North receive: Cali free state, tip balance in court, Tx. gave up land in New Mex., Slave trade banned in D.C.; South receive Mex. Cession lands under popular sovereignty (but bad for slaves), Tx. receive $10 mill for New Mex., tougher Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 (This Fugitive Slave Law proved to the be most controversial of the measures); North got better deal;
fire eaters
Southerners against concession and compromise; against Compromise 1850
Clayton Bulwer Treaty
said neither the U.S. or Britain would take over the area in Central America without the other's agreement;
Ostend Manifesto
Southerners also looked to Cuba; Americans offered to buy Cuba from Spain but were turned down; 1850-51, two groups of filibusteros ("freebooters" or pirates including some leading Southerners) invaded Cuba and failed miserably; 1854, Cubans seized the American ship Black Warrior (now Pierce could start war); Pierce sent delegates to speak with Spain, England, and France in Ostend, Belgium to make a deal; said the U.S. would offer $120 million for Cuba, and if Spain rejected it, the U.S. would be justified in taking Cuba by force and upset North Free soilers and Pierce backed away;
higher law
(God's law), above the Constitution from Young Guard Seward;
Kansas Nebraska Act
create Kansas and Nebraska; created by Douglas of Illinois Senate; North got the transcontinental railroad moved up North. Also, Kansas and Nebraska were officially organized as territories; South was awarded popular sovereignty in Kansas and Nebraska. To do this, the Missouri Compromise of 1820 was repealed (because it forbade slavery above the 36°30' line); passed in 1856; it split the nation
Gadsden Purchase
bought the southern chunk of present Arizona and New Mexico for $10 million, a hefty price tag in comparison to other "purchases; allowed Railway in South; Deal made in Mexico;
Treaty of Wanghia
Treaty signed July 3 1844 between China and Caleb Cushing; Give U.S. extraterritorality; all trade terms of other nations
Forty Niners
people who rushed into California for gold in 1849; Sutter's Mill in 1848, gold was discovered; more people made their fortunes out of the myriad of things needed to accompany the miners; California had enough people to become a free state which upset South;
Whittier
Abolitionist poet sharply criticized Webster as a traitor to the cause;
Whigs 1852
split between N. and S. and disagree on candidate;
Slavocracy
theory (a conspiracy theory where the South was supposedly always seeking to add new slave lands); fueled by land in Latin America;
Caleb Cushing
sent by Pierce to China; agreement was reached to start diplomatic relations and grant "most favored nation" status to the U.S. (opening up trade); thousands of American missionaries to spread the Gospel in China
Harriet Beecher Stowe
published Uncle Tom's Cabin in 1852; stirred the North's sense of morality against slavery;
Hinton R. Helper
The Impending Crisis of the South was written at the same time and also criticized slavery; argued that slavery hurt non-slave owning whites in the South;
John Brown
and men set out for revenge for Lawrence. At Pottawatomie Creek he killed and chopped up 5 slavery supporters; re-emerged in Harper's Ferry, Virginia with a wild plan to abolish slavery; captured by Rob. Lee and Marines; later hung after trial; his martyr image gave strength to the moral cause of abolition;
James Buchanan
election of 1856 had three main canidates; Dem. choice b/c not involved in Kansas; won pres. and approved Lecompton Constitution; Homestead Act vetoed; did little or nothing to stop the states from leaving the U.S. between leaving Presidency; Believe the need for troops out west to fight the Indians, (b) Northerners lack of will in using force, (c) holding onto the hope of a peaceful settlement, and (d) the idea that Lincoln would soon be the new president and this problem was essentially his to fix as he saw fit
Charles Sumner
Senator (northern abolitionist) graphically criticized a South Carolina congressman in "Crime Against Kansas" speech; Brooks fellow Congressman and relative the criticized, took offense to Sumner's comments; Preston Brooks whacked him over the head on the floor of Congress with a walking cane;
John C. Fremont
election of 1856 had three main candidates; Repub. choice b/c Pathfinder and Mex. war hero; accused of being Catholic which hurt his votes;
Dred Scott
a Missouri slave whose owner moved (with Scott) to Illinois and Wisconsin, then back to Missouri; sued for his freedom arguing that since he'd lived in free states, he was free;
Roger Taney
March of 1857, the Supreme Court, led by Chief Justice, handed down the Dred Scott decision
John C. Breckenridge
Southern Democrats had their own Baltimore convention and nominated him with a pro-slavery position for election 1860; got south votes but lost;
John Bell
The Know-Nothings(Constitutional Union Party) nominated him; from Tennessee; middle ground votes but lost;
Abraham Lincoln
Illinois Senate race of 1858 Repub. choice; challenged Douglas to a series of debates and Douglas accepted; Lost Senate election; Repub. choice for pres. election 1860; Support by broad group including free-soilers (stopping slavery's expansion), manufacturers (a higher tariff), immigrants (rights), westerners (a Northwestern railroad), and farmers (cheap homesteading land); not an abolitionist during election, just a free-soiler; 40% of the popular vote and won; 6 weeks before inaugaration Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas and S.C. secede; Didn't agree to Crittenden Compromise;
Jefferson Davis
President of Confederate States of America
John Crittenden
final attempt at compromise was made by him . His Crittendon Compromise proposed to extend the old Missouri Compromise line of 36°30'; north of the line would be free, south of it would be slave
self-determination
...
southern nationalism
would enable them to mature economically—to grow their own industry, banking, shipping, etc; believe North wouldn't attack;
Uncle Tom's Cabin
stirred the North's sense of morality against slavery; about the splitting up of a slave family and the mistreatment of likable Uncle Tom by a cruel slave master; helped prevent Britain from joining the war on the South's side;
The Impending Crisis of the South
by Hinton Helper was written at the same time and also criticized slavery; argued that slavery hurt non-slave owning whites in the South; No Southern publisher would print the book; banned down South but became something of a hit among abolitionist up North;
New Endgand Immigrant Aid Society
Northerners were sending loads of settlers to Kansas (supposed to be slave state); helped suit up the settlers, many carrying "Beecher's Bibles" (rifles) named after Rev. Henry Ward Beecher (Harriet's brother) who helped purchase them;
Pottawatomie Creek massacre
John Brown led abolitionists followers and chopped off the heads of 5 proslaveryites for revenge of Lawrencetown;
Lecompton Constitution
pro-slavery government wrote up b/c Kansas able to apply statehood in 1856; choose slavery or not but, slave-owners already present would still be protected; passed "with" slavery b/c abolitionists boycotted vote; Pres. James Buchanan gave his approval, but the Senate had to approve the Constitution; stephen Douglas got the Constitution shot dead in the water;
Bleeding Kansas
gang of pro-slavery hoodlums, led by the outlaw William Clark Quantrill, shot up and burnt down free-soil Lawrence, Kansas; violence continued when John Brown and men set out for revenge for Lawrence. At Pottawatomie Creek he killed and chopped up 5 slavery supporters
American or Know Nothing Party
anti-immigrant party during 1856 election; nominated John Bell of Tennessee in 1860 election; became Constitutional Union Party; offering as their platform, simply, the Constitution;
Dred Scott decision
March of 1857, the Supreme Court, led by Chief Justice Roger Taney, handed down; 1.Dred Scott (and all slaves) was not a citizen and therefore not entitled to sue; Court went further and said that a legislature/Congress cannot outlaw slavery b/c of Constitution; Court then concluded the Missouri Compromise had been unconstitutional all along; 5th Amendment said Congress could not take away property, in this case, slaves;
panic of 1857
economics of the situation weren't particularly bad; (a) inflation caused by California gold, (b) over-production of grain, and (c) over-speculation (the perennial cause), this time in land and railroads; North was hit hardest; South Cotton Kingdom not; Homestead Act was passed by Congress but vetoed by Pres. Buchanan (goal was to provide 160 western acres for a nominal price); tariff rate also went up b/c prior rates had recently been reduced to only 20%, due to Southern complaints, but the new law sent them right back up;
Lincoln-Douglas debates
Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of debates and Douglas accepted; series of seven debates spread across Illinois; most noteworthy debate took place at Freeport, IL (Lincoln essentially asked, "Mr. Douglas, if the people of a territory voted slavery down, despite the Supreme Court saying that they could not do so (point #2 of the Dred Scott decision), which side would you support, the people or the Supreme Court, Douglas replied with his "Freeport Doctrine"; Douglas won the Illinois Senate race over Lincoln
Freeport Doctrine
since ultimate power was held by the people, slavery should be banned if the people indeed voted it down; ruined Douglas hopes to win the 1860 election for presidency;
harpers ferry raid
take over the federal arsenal in Harper's Ferry, pass out weapons to local slaves, initiate a huge revolt, and thus free the slaves, but were quickly holed up by Marines led by Lt. Col. Robert E. Lee. captured him, tried, convicted, sentenced to death, and hanged
Constitutional Union party
Created from Know Nothing Party in 1860 election; chose John Bell; offering as their platform, simply, the Constitution;
Beecher's Bibles
settlers carryied (rifles) named after Rev. Henry Ward Beecher (Harriet's brother) who helped purchase them
Crittenden compromise
final attempt at compromise was made by James Henry Crittendon of Kentucky. proposed to extend the old Missouri Compromise line of 36°30'; north of the line would be free, south of it would be slave; failed b/c Lincoln didn't agree
Bleeding Sumner
Brooks fellow Congressman and relative the criticized, took offense to Sumner's comments; Brooks wanted to duel him but did not seem him as a gentleman; Preston Brooks whacked Charles Sumner over the head on the floor of Congress with a walking cane; Brooks was expelled from Congress only to get re-elected in the next election; (a) Sumner's "Crime Against Kansas" speech became a rallying point for the North
Kansas election 1855
pro-Southern "border ruffians" jumped over from Missouri to Kansas to "vote early and vote often; won and became slave state and set up a government at Shawnee Mission; Free-soilers cried foul and set up their own government in Topeka; one slave and based on a bogus election, and one free and illegitimate;
Stephen Douglas
author of Kansas/Nebraska popular sovereignty, who led the opposition. Douglas felt the election wasn't true popular sovereignty due to the irregularities of the voting; got the Constitution shot dead in the water; Illinois Senate race of 1858 Democrat choice; Lincoln challenged him to a series of debates and he accepted; Won Senator election; made Freeport Doctrine speech in one debate; chosen by North Dems. for 1860 election; Missouri vote in election and lost;
Democrat Divide in 1860 election
failed, to nominate a candidate at their convention in Charleston, SC; Northern Democrats had a convention in Baltimore and nominated Stephen Douglas; Southern Democrats had their own Baltimore convention and nominated John C. Breckinridge with a pro-slavery position
Confederate States of America
7 seceded states met in Montgomery, AL in February, 1861, and formed; Jeff. Davis became Pres.