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292 terms

History 8 Final (finished!)

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Topography
The precise detailed study of the surface features of a region
lake
a body of (usually fresh) water surrounded by land
piedmont
the plateau between the coastal plain and the Appalachian Mountains: parts of Virginia and North and South Carolina and Georgia and Alabama
bay
any inlet of the ocean or sea partly surrounded by land
rural
living in or characteristic of farming or country life
prairie
arge area of level or rolling land with grass but few or no trees
tributary
a small river or stream that flows into a larger body of water
flood plain
flat land near the edges of rivers formed by mud and slit deposited by floods
harbor
A sheltered port where ships can take on or discharge cargo
geography
The study of the earth and everything on it
class system
A system in which society is divided into different social groups
salutary neglect
A hands-off policy of England towards its American colonies during the first half of the 1700s
Pontiac's Rebellion
Native American revolt against the British colonies
social mobility
the movement of people or groups from one class to another
literacy
the ability to read and write
Enlightenment
a movement during the 1700s that spread the idea that knowledge, reason, and science could improve society
rule of law
no one is above the law
Proclamation of 1763
British declaraton that forbade colonists from settling west of the Appalachians
Albany Plan of Union
The first proposal to unite the colonies
The Treaty of Paris 1763
This officially ended the French and Indian War in 1763
pact
a formal agreement or bargain
natural rights
The idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
The Great Awakening
A religious movement that swept through the colonies in the 1730's and 1740's
Magna Carta
This document was signed by King John in 1215. It was the first document that limited the power of the government
divine right
the belief that a ruler's authority come directly from God
The great Enlightenment thinker, John Locke argued that people have
certain rights that governments must protect
John Locke
English philosopher who argued that people have natural rights to life, liberty, and property
Proclamation of 1763
This forbade the colonists from settling on lands west of the Appalachian Mountains
How did the Enlightenment influence American colonists?
It introduced ideas of natural rights and government by consent
Which of the following was a provision of the Magna Carta?
Taxation was prohibited, unless it was agreed to by a council
What was a reaction to Pontiac's Rebellion?
Proclamation of 1763
British officers brutal plan to end Pontiac's rebellion involved
giving small pox infected blankets to the Natives
How was life in the "New World" unlike life in Europe?
The class system was based on achievement rather than birth
What is one individual right the English Bill of Rights protects?
the right to free elections
What was NOT true of the French and Indian War?
It began after the French aided Pontiac's Rebellion against the English
Mississippi River
Which river was a major obstacle to westward expansion
What two elements gave English colonial farmers a chance to prosper?
cheap farmland and plentiful natural resources
How did competition between the French and British in the Ohio River Valley lead to war?
Both the French and the British established trade agreements with the Natives in the Ohio River Valley
What was the main reason for the New England colonists' insistence that their children learn to read and write?
so that they could understand the Bible
Describe the relationship between the English settlers and the Native Americans
The English saw the Natives as a threat to their land ownership and control
English laws that affected the colonists were made by
Parliament
Was a result of the Great Awakening
African Americans were invited into churches
George Whitefield
The minister who drew thousands with his sermons and raised funds to start a home for orphans
Benjamin Franklin
Famous American Enlightenment figure who conducted scientific experiments to discover the laws of nature
One result of the Glorious Revolution was that the New England colonists
could once again elect assemblies
Which of the following most accurately describes the CAUSE of the French and Indian War?
French and English settlers both claimed the same land in the Ohio River Valley
Pontiac's Rebellion
The Proclamation of 1763 was issued to avoid future conflicts such as this
What did France lose under the Treaty or Paris 1763
power in North America
Why could a higher percentage of people vote in America than in England?
there were more landowners
The turning point of the French and Indian War came in 1757 when
General James Wolfe captured Quebec
Which of the following best describes the New England Region of Colonial America?
Short-growing seasons, rocky soil, good harbors
The first step toward guaranteeing the rights of English nobles and freemen
the Magna Carta
Largest mountain range in North America
Rockies
The first attempt to unite the colonies in times of crisis was proposed in
the Albany Plan of Union
What caused problems between the colonial settlers and the Native Americans?
Increased English settlement caused conflict over land ownership
the headwater of the Mississippi
Lake Itasca
The right of freedom of the press in the colonies was established by the trial of
John Peter Zenger
Sugar Act
Imposed a duty on sugar and molasses
Currency Act
forbade the colonies from printing their own money
Stamp Act
colonists had to pay a special tax on paper goods and legal documents
What did NOT lead to the Battle of Bunker Hill?
The Americans declare Independence from Britain
How many grievances are listed in the Declaration?
27
speculate
to buy as an investment
Which colonial right was threatened by the Intolerable Acts?
Right of the elected colonial assembly to meet
Intolerable Acts
imposed as a direct result of the Boston Tea Party
tributary
a small river or stream that flows into a larger body of water
Justice Act
Allowed British officials accused of a colonial crime to be tried in Britain instead of the American colonies
Siege
when enemy forces surround a town or city in order to force it to surrender
Boycott
refusal to buy
Revenue
income
Why was New England a hotbed of political protest?
The Puritan legacy influenced the inhabitants of the New England area
a body of (usually fresh) water surrounded by land
lake
What reason does the Preamble give for the writing of the Declaration of Independence?
Its states the necessity of breaking from Britain
On March 5th, 1770 during the Boston Massacre,
Crispus Attucks became the first casualty of the American Revolution.
Propaganda
information put out to promote a certain point of view
geography
the study of the earth and everything on it
Writs of Assistance granted under the Townshend Acts
made British officials above the law
The shot heard round the world took place at
Lexington
What was not a belief expressed by Thomas Paine in Common Sense?
All men have the right to be represented before being taxed
Tea Act
gave the king's British East India Company a monopoly in the colonies
Townshend Acts
a tax on paper, paint, lead, glass, and tea
Sons of Liberty
A secret society that opposed British policies
duty
taxes placed on imported goods
Loyalists
Americans who supported the British
militia
a force of armed civilians pledged to defend their community
artillery
canon and large gun
Why did Parliament impose new laws on the colonies following the French and Indian War?
Britain needed money to pay off the debt from the French and Indian War and to help cover the cost of protecting the colonists
What best describes the Middle Colonial Region?
diverse
Quartering Acts
Forced the colonists to house and clothe British troops
salutary neglect
British practice to ignore their colonies
Why could a higher percentage of people vote in America than in England?
There were more landowners
What was accomplished at the meeting of the First Continental Congress?
They voted to ban trade with Britain till the Acts were repealed
Proclamation of 1763
Forbade colonial settlement west of the Appalachians
What was a method the colonists used to get Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act?
The colonists established the Stamp Act Congress.
The purpose of the Declaratory Act was to
affirm Parliament's right to pass laws pertaining to the colonies.
What was NOT part of the Intolerable Acts?
disbanded the Virginia Assembly
Why did the colonists disagree with the passage of new laws by Parliament?
They opposed the passage of any law without representation in Parliament
Which of the following statements best defines the teachers role in your success this year in History class
The teacher is not responsible for my success, I am
After the Boston Massacre, John Adams agreed to defend the British troops accused of murder because
he believed that all men deserved a fair trial
These colonial groups helped unite the colonies by spreading word through letter writing
Committees of Correspondence
On which river is our nation's capital located on?
Potomac
Patriots
Colonists who supported the American Revolution
In drafting the Constitution, larger and smaller states argued over
representation in legislature
Framer
a creator of the Constitution
Is the quote, "I think this new plan will provide a good balance of power." from a federalist or antifederalist
federalist
What was a domestic problem faced by the government under the Articles of Confederation?
Shay's rebellion in Massachusetts
Is the quote, "What Americans need is a bill of rights, and this new government will not get my approval until we have one." from a federalist or antifederalist
antifederalist
How was the issue of slavery addressed in the Northwest Ordinance?
It was outlawed
Several Southern delegates threatened that if the Constitution included an immediate ban on slavery, they would
"never accept the plan."
Republic
A political system in which people elect representatives to govern for them
In 1784, the lower Mississippi was closed to U.S. shipping by
Spain
The Articles of Confederation...
created a weak federal government and gave supreme power to the states
Checks and Balances
The ability for each branch of government to exercise control over the others
Federalism
Share power between states and the national government
The states without Western land claims refused to sign the Articles of Confederation because
states with Western lands might become overwhelmingly powerful
Interprets law
judicial
Makes law
legislative
Why did Parliament impose new laws on the colonies following the French and Indian War?
Britain needed money to pay off the debt from the French and Indian War and to help cover the cost of protecting the colonists
The Land Ordinance of 1785
divided the land in the Northwest Territory into townships
Delegates from the smaller states strongly objected to the Virginia Plan because
small states would have very few representatives in Congress
Is the quote, "It's obvious that the Articles weren't working, and I think this new plan reflects a careful compromise among a variety of opinions." a federalist or antifederalist
federalist
Antifederalists, such as Patrick Henry, feared that
the federal government would be too strong and may abuse the states
Why did Americans want to create different branches within the government?
To prevent any branch from having power over another branch
Three-fifths Compromise
compromise that resolved the problem of how slaves would be counted for representation and taxation in the new government
Is the quote, "I think it is important for people to realize that the large size and diversity of the United States will make it impossible for any single group to form a majority that could dominate the government." from a federalist or antifederalist
federalist
Under the Articles of Confederation, who would run our national government?
the Congress
ratification
official approval
One problem the government under the Articles of Confederation faced with Spain was:
Spain closed the Mississippi to American trade
What was the main goal of American leaders as they established their first government?
to prevent tyranny
levy
to impose a tax
Is the quote, "I think those delegates exceeded their authority in creating a whole new government. They were just supposed to work on the Articles a bit." from a federalist or antifederalist
antifederalist
Were a group of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay in support of ratification of the Constitution
The Federalist Papers
Wasn't true about the Virginia Plan:
It established a unicameral legislature
One problem the government under the Articles of Confederation faced with Britain was:
Britain stayed in their forts in the Great Lakes region
Rural
living in or characteristic of farming or country life
Which of the following powers was denied the national government under the Articles of Confederation?
Collect taxes
To formally approve
ratification
Why did the colonists disagree with the passage of new laws by Parliament?
They opposed the passage of any law without representation in Parliament
relating to, from, or located in a country or countries other than your own
foreign
Which of the following powers was granted the national government under the Articles of Confederation?
control Indian affairs
Amendment
addition to a document
Which of the following was a domestic problem faced by the government under the Articles of Confederation?
Shay's rebellion in Massachusetts
Under the Articles of Confederation, who would run our national government?
the Congress
One problem the government under the Articles of Confederation faced with Spain was:
Spain closed the Mississippi to American trade
What was the main goal of American leaders as they established their first government?
to prevent tyranny
One problem the government under the Articles of Confederation faced with Britain was:
Britain stayed in their forts in the Great Lakes region
Which of the following powers was denied the national government under the Articles of Confederation?
collect taxes
Which of the following powers was granted the national government under the Articles of Confederation?
control Indian affairs
Based on Washington's view of political differences, what would his opinion of political parties be?
Political parties would divide America
After the Boston Massacre, John Adams agreed to defend the British troops accused of murder because
he believed that all men deserved a fair trial
The purpose of the Declaratory Act was to
affirm Parliament's right to pass laws pertaining to the colonies
Precedent
an example that becomes a standard practice
Sedition
stirring up rebellion against a government
Served as secretary of treasury under President Washington
Alexander Hamilton
The purpose of the Quartering Act was to require the colonies to
provide housing for British soldiers stationed in the American colonies
True or False, Robert Gray's explorations led to America's claims to the vast Oregon Territory
true
What was a domestic policy issue faced by President Washington?
Farmers revolted against the government in the Whiskey Rebellion
Aliens
Immigrants who are not yet citizens
Writs of Assistance granted under the Townshend Acts
made British officials above the law
Why did the colonists disagree with the passage of new laws by Parliament?
They opposed the passage of any law without representation in Parliament
To formally swear into office
Inaugurate
Was the first vice-president and the second president of the United States
John Adams
How did Pinckney's Treaty make it easier for Trans-Appalachian settlers?
It gave settlers the right to use the Mississippi River and port of New Orleans
Relations with the governments of other countries
Foreign Policy
Group of people that tries to promote its ideas and influence government.
Political party
How did the invention of the Cotton Gin help the Southern economy?
one slave could now do the work of 50
Alexander Hamilton believed that the government should
encourage business and industry
Alien and Sedition Acts
targeted both immigrants and newspaper editors
Why was the nation in debt when George Washington became the nation's first president?
The American Revolution
Group of executive department heads that serve as the president's chief advisors
cabinet
What was the significance of the Battle of Fallen Timbers?
Native Americans were unable to hold on to the Northwest Territory
In 1793, Washington declared that the United States would remain neutral during the
French Revolution
Not siding with any country in a dispute
Neutral
A belief that the government can do whatever is necessary to carry out its duties even if it is not written in the Constitution
Loose construction
True or False, at the time the Bill of Rights was ratified, slaves were denied basic freedoms because they were considered property
True
What did Jefferson and Madison use to fight the Alien and Sedition Acts?
the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Why did Parliament impose new laws on the colonies following the French and Indian War?
Britain needed money to pay off the debt from the French and Indian War and to help cover the cost of protecting the colonists
Pinckney's Treaty established the 31st parallel as the boundary between the United States and _____
Spain
Idea that states have certain rights that the federal government cannot overrule
state's rights
Jay's Treaty helped reduce frontier tensions between the U.S. and _____
Britain
The main lesson learned from the Whiskey Rebellion could be best stated as
The federal government was stronger under the Constitution than under the Articles of Confederation
True or False, Thomas Jefferson was the first Vice-President of the United States
False
Why was the result of the election of 1796 a problem?
A Federalist became president and a Democratic-Republican, vice-president
True or False, the Democratic-Republican Party was one of the two first political parties established in America
True
How did Hamilton convince Southerners to back his economic plan?
By agreeing to build the nation's capital in the South
Which statement accurately describes the XYZ Affair?
U.S. diplomats were asked for bribes to meet with a French official
Why did Washington advise the nation to remain neutral in world affairs?
Agreements with foreign nations might work against U.S. interests
Idea that a state could cancel a federal law within the state
nullification
Why did Congress create the Embargo Act in 1807?
To be "peaceable corecion."
Which of the following is true about the Embargo Act of 1807?
It caused America to enter an economic depression
What was an effect of the War of 1812?
It encouraged the growth of American manufacturing
What was NOT a goal of the Lewis and Clark expedition?
determine if the water in the lakes and rivers was safe to drink
The main lesson learned from the Whiskey Rebellion could be best stated as
The federal government was stronger under the Constitution than under the Articles of Confederation.
A sheltered part of the ocean, along the land, deep enough for docking ships
harbor
Which statement is true of the 1800 presidential election?
The House of Representatives selected the president and vice-president
A body of land surrounded by water
island
a feeling of pride, loyalty, and protectiveness toward one's country
nationalism
What factor may have influenced Napoleon to sell Louisiana to the United States?
He needed money to pay for the costly war against Britain
Why was President Thomas Jefferson troubled about the Louisiana Purchase?
His strict constructionists beliefs were at odds with the purchase
Who was an American hero from the Battle of Lake Erie?
Oliver Hazard Perry
Corps
a number of people acting together for a similar purpose
How were the British involved in the problems with Native Americans on the frontier?
They were blamed for inciting the resistance
On which river is our nation's capital located?
Potomac
How did the Battle of Tippecanoe begin?
Tenskwatawa attacked American troops outside Prophetstown
This Shawnee chief wanted to build a confederation of native tribes
Tecumseh
Who is considered the "Father of Steam Navigation?"
Robert Fulton
to compel people to serve in a navy or army, especially by arbitrary means
impressments
Which is the first state to be admitted to the Union from the North West Teritory?
Ohio
Someone who supported the War of 1812
war hawk
Which of the following is true about the Pike Expedition?
He wandered off course and entered Spanish territory
a tax on imported goods that protect a nation's businesses from foreign competition
protective tax
pressure
coercion
political party against a strong federal government
Democratic-Republican
Who was the Prophet?
Tecumseh's brother, Tenskwatawa
What prevented Napoleon from building a French Empire in North America?
Toussaint-L'Overture led a slave rebellion on Haiti
Payment exacted or extorted for protection
tribute
What was an effect of the Battle of New Orleans?
It made Andrew Jackson a national hero
Who was president during the War of 1812?
James Madison
a person who takes extreme political position
radical
Whose death at the Battle of the Thames led to the "Curse of Tecumseh?"
Tecumseh
What was a domestic policy issue faced by President Washington?
Farmers revolted against the government in the Whiskey Rebellion
What peace traty ended the War of 1812?
The Treaty of Ghent
What caused cotton production to soar in the South?
The invention of the cotton gin
Why were Natives angry with Americans?
Natives feared losing their land to white settlers
What is not a boundary of the Louisiana Territory?
The Great Lakes
Which statement is true about the principle of judicial review?
It states that the Supreme Court is the final authority on the meaning of the Constitution
Which contribution did Sacagawea make to the Lewis and Clark expedition?
guided the explorers and acted as a translator for them
Which statement accurately describes the XYZ Affair?
U.S. diplomats were asked for bribes to meet with a French official
What is one reason New England was a good place to build factories?
It had many fast-flowing rivers to power machines
How did the War of 1812 support American Industrialization?
British blockades hampered importation of goods
Why did Samuel Slater enter the United States under a false name?
British textile workers were not allowed to leave the country
The first use of interchangeable parts in American manufacturing was for
Muskets
Which inventor was the first to introduce interchangeable parts?
Eli Whitney
Cloth or fabric that is manufactured
textiles
What was one effect of the British naval blockade during the War of 1812?
There was growth in American industries
A Manufacturer
Industrialist
A machine that separates kernels from husks
Threshing Machine
A small-scale business involving people who mostly work at home
Cottage Industry
Where did the Lowell Mills girls live?
in company-owned boardinghouses
What did falling textile profits lead to?
Lower wages
Who invented the telegraph?
Samuel F. B. Morse
Which 1837 invention allowed people to communicate almost instantly with one another over long distances?
Telegraph
Why was New England the setting for America's first water-powered textile mills?
New England had many swift rivers
Textile mills that engaged young girls to work
Lowell Mills
Whose improvement of the steamship allowed navigation up the Mississippi River?
Henry Miller Shreve
Which invention improved agricultural production?
Cyrus McCormick's mechanical reaper
What effect did increased competition have on mill workers?
their wages increased, but they had to work longer hours
Method of manufacturing that places many workers and machines into one location
Factory system
a device that cuts grain
Mechanical Reaper
Economic changes in the United States that began in the late 18th century and involved widespread adoption of industrial methods of production
Industrial Revolution
Using the graph on your worksheet and your knowledge of United States history, which of the following statements is most accurate?
A small percentage of the white population owned most of the slaves
slavery
the enforced labor of other people
spirituals
religious folk songs
a machine that made cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers faster
cotton gin
planned a slave rebellion in Richmond, Virginia
Gabriel Prosser
led a slave rebellion in South Carolina
Denmark Vesey
promoting the interests of farmers/agriculture
Agrarian
How did the Industrial Revolution in the north encourage an increase in slavery in the south
The increase in demand for manufactured goods increased the demand for raw materials such as cotton
An important aspect of African-American culture in the South was
Religion
Enslaved persons in Southern cities and towns often worked as
skilled craftsmen and factory hands
Which of the following is true of free African in the south?
The biggest threat was being captured and sold into slavery
Why did Southern cotton growers want to increase their production of cotton?
to meet the demand created by English and Northern textile mills
True or false, all slaves worked on plantations
false
What enslaved preacher led the bloodiest slave rebellion in the South?
Nat Turner
Why did Nat Turner lead a slave rebellion in Virginia?
He believed he was a "prophet" from God
What was one result of Nat Turners Rebellion?
Virginia's legislature considered banning slavery
Using the map on your worksheet and your knowledge of history answer this questions. How did Eli Whitney's cotton gin change Southern life?
Native Americas were forced off of land in the south and west
How did the cotton gin help spread slavery through the South?
It made growing short-fibered cotton profitable
What happened the Federalist Party after the election of 1816?
the Federalist Party lost the election and ceased to exist
McCulloch v. Maryland
Supreme Court case established that states do not have the right to tax the federal government
Mason-Dixon Line
The separation between slave and free states
Missouri Compromise
1820 laws designed to maintain the balance of power between slave states and free states
Why did Russia concern President Monroe?
Russian traders had entered Alaska and were as far south as San Francisco
What created division between the north and the south?
Economic changes
One provision of the American System was to
establish a protective tariff on imported goods
What led to a decline in canal use?
Improvements in railroad travel
an artificial waterway
canal
What was not true of the Monroe Doctrine?
The Monroe Doctrine became law in 1823
protective tariff
a tariff on imports whose primary purpose is to protect a country's domestic economy
Which Kentucky representative was a strong supporter of nationalism?
Henry Clay
While considering admitting Missouri to the Union, what did southerners in Congress claim?
The Constitution did not give Congress the power to ban slavery
Adams-Onís Treaty
treaty that gave Florida to the United States
Monroe Doctrine
U.S. policy opposing European involvement in the America's
Rush-Bagot Agreement
treaty that limited the number of war ships that the United States and Britian could have on the Great Lakes
Sectionalism
loyalty to one's own part of the country
American System
plan introduced in 1815 to make America economically self-sufficient
National Road
By 1841, this transportation route extended from Cumberland, Maryland to Vandalia, Illinois
Maine
state which was admitted to the Union along with Missouri as part of the Missouri Compromise
Simon Bolivar
He became known as the "George Washington of Latin America" for his struggle to free Latin American countries from Spanish rule
How was Andrew Jackson involved in the Adams-Onis Treaty?
He led the attack on Spanish Florida
Nationalism
proud, loyalty, and devotion to one's own country
Gibbons v. Ogden
Supreme Court Case that enforced the fact that only the federal government had the power to control interstate commerce