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all the terms on the timeline we went over in class.


Byzantine Emperor in the 6th. century

Justinian Code

Legal code that was the foundation for Byzantine law for almost 900 years.

Plague of Justinian

Outbreak of Bubonic Plague in Byzantium in 6th century

Hagia Sofia

Church built in 6th century in the city of Constantinople


Nun and sister of St. Benedict

German Christianized

Process in which polytheist Germanic peoples converted to Christianity

Charles the Hammer

Charles Martel; a french mayor who was a hero to Christians in Europe.


Frankish King who expands empire and take the title of Emperor.

Invasions of Europe

Magyars, Muslims, and Vikings invaded Europe during the Middle Ages.

Treaty of Verdun

Document which split Charlemagne's Empire into three pieces.

Christianity Splits

Disputes over doctrine lead to two churches: Catholic in the west and Orthodox in the East.

Malik Shah

considered the greatest Seljuk (or Turkish) sultan

Pope Urban II

Christian leader who called upon Europe to retake Holy Lands.

Notre Dame

Gothic Cathedral built in Paris during the 12th & 13th centuries

The Crusades

A series of military campaigns to retake the Holy Lands from Muslim control.

Holy Roman Empire

the strongest political state in Europe from 936 to 1100.

Eleanor of Aquitaine

Married both a french and English king. Mother of Richard I.

Richard I

English King known as the 'Lion-Hearted' for his bravery during the Third Crusade.


Muslim leader who retook Jerusalem from European forces.

Henry II

Father of Richard II and a king of England.

Genghis Khan

Mongolian general who conquered massive territories in Asia.

Magna Carta

'Great Charter' set legal limits to the King of England's power.

Thomas Aquinas

Christian scholar who lived in the 13th century.

The Black Death

Outbreak of Bubonic Plague in Europe

Hundred Years War

Conflict between England and France during the 14th & 15th century

Joan of Arc

Teenage girl who helped defeat English forces.


When Spanish forces drove Muslims from Spain

Ivan III

First Czar of Russia; he wanted to create a new Roman Empire

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