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The Constitution allows Congress to create courts lower than federal courts. What are these courts called?

inferior courts

In what article of the Constitution are special courts referred to?

Article I

In what article of the Constitution are constitutional courts referred to?

Article III

What is the authority to hear a court cases known as?


Cases that can only be heard in federal courts are said to have what type of jurisdiction?


What type of jurisdiction occurs when a case is heard for the first time? Appealed to a higher court?

original; appellate

How long are judges who hear cases in the Federal Claims Courts, US Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, Tax Court, and the US Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims serve?

15 years

What is the list of courses to be heard called?


How many courts of appeals are there?


What is the term for when all of the judges for a particular circuit participate in the hearing?

en banc

What case was the first to establish the power of judicial review?

Marbury v. Madison

Who was the Chief Justice that made the decision from that case?

John Marshall

What is the term for an order by the Supreme Court directing a lower court to send up the record in a given case for its review?

writ of certiorari

A case can reach the Supreme Court by a process in which a lower court is not clear about a procedure or the rule of law that should apply to the case. This process is called?


What are briefs filed by persons or groups who are not actual parties to a case but have interest in the outcome?

amicus curiae (friend of the court)

Examples to be followed in similar cases as they arise in the lower courts or reach the Supreme Court are called?


To add or emphasize a point that was not made in the majority opinion is what type of opinion?

concurring opinion

Opinions that do not agree with the majority decision are known as?

dissenting opinion

What is a court operating as part of the judicial branch entirely separate from the military establishment that are made up of a chief judge and four judges not members of the armed forces?

civilian tribunal

What is the newest court in the federal judiciary?

The Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims

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