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Where the majority of people earn their living by providing a service rather than manufacturing a product.
sets of ideas that people have about relationships, obligations, roles, and functions of society
a government in which citizens choose a smaller group to govern on their behalf
political principle providing that a majority of the members of a community has the power to make laws binding upon all the people
those who followed a religious faith other than the official religion of England
workers who contracted with American colonists for food and shelter in return for their labor
pattern of trade that developed in colonial times among the Americas, Africa, and Europe
meeting of state delegates in 1787 leading to adoption of new Constitution
agreement providing that enslaved persons would count as three-fifths of other persons in determining representation in congress
a group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president
a form of government in which power is divided between the federal, or national, government and the states
separation of powers
The split of authority among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches.
checks and balances
a system in which each branch of government is able to check, or restrain, the power of the others
powers that the Constitution does not give to the national government that are kept by the states
the freedoms we have to think and act without government interference or fear of unfair treatment
A court order allowing law enforcement officers to search a suspect's home or business and take specific items as evidence
a group of citizens that decides whether there is sufficient evidence to accuse someone of a crime
a sum of money used as a security deposit to ensure that an accused person returns for his or her trial
programs intended to make up for past discrimination by helping minority groups and women gain access to jobs and opportunities
complex systems with many departments, many rules, and many people in the chain of command
in both The House Of Representatives and the Senate, the political party to which more than half the members belong
in both the House of Representatives and the Senate, the political party to which fewer than half the members belong
clause in Article I, section 8 of the Constitution that gives Congress the right to make all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out its expressed powers
writ of habeas corpus
a court order that requires police to bring a prisoner to court to explain why they are holding the person
bill of attainder
a law that punishes a person accused of a crime without a trial or a fair hearing in court
ex post facto law
a law that would allow a person to be punished for an action that was not against the law when it was committed
The right of senators and representatives to send job-related mail without paying postage
representative of an interest group who contacts lawmakers or other government officials directly to influence their policy making
Government projects and grants that primarily benefit the home district or state
An organization of people with some common interests who try to influence government decisions
a tactic for defeating a bill in the Senate by talking until the bill's sponsor withdraws it
President's power to kill a bill, if Congress is not in session, by not signing it for 10 days
an agreement among a group of nations that prohibits them all from trading with a target nation
a group of advisers to the president that includes the heads of 15 top-level executive departments
the power of the Supreme Court to say whether any federal, state, or local law or government action goes against the Constitution
a statement written by a justice who votes with the majority, but for different reasons
a statement written by a justice who disagrees with the majority opinion, presenting his or her opinion
an association of voters with broad common interests who want to influence or control decision making in government by electing the party's candidates to public office
a series of statements expressing the party's principles, beliefs, and positions on election issues.
a strong party organization that can control political appointments and deliver votes
an election in which only the declared members of a party are allowed to vote for that party's nominees
An election in which voters need not declare their party preference to vote for the party's nominees.
A process by which candidates who are not affiliated with one of the two major parties can get on the ballot for the general election in most states
a system in which the candidate who wins the popular vote in a state usually receives all of the state's electoral votes
political action committee
political organization established by a corporation, labor union, or other special interest group designed to support candidates by contributing money
donations given to political parties and not designated for a particular candidate's election campaign
a legal action in which a person or group sues to collect damages for some harm that is done
branch of law dealing with formation, construction, and interpretation of constitutions
allow cities to write their own charters, choose their own type of government, and manage their own affairs
A unit of local government that deals with a specific function, such as education, water supply, or transportation
a thing we would like to have, such as entertainment, vacation, or an item, that makes life comfortable and enjoyable
the study of how individuals and nations make choices about ways to use scarce resources to fulfill their needs and wants
simplified representation of the real world that economists develop to describe how the economy behaves and is expected to perform in the future
Cost of the next best alternative use of money, time, or resources when one choice is made rather than another
Economic model that compares the marginal costs and marginal benefits of a decision.
individual who starts a new business, introduces a new product, and improves a management technique
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
total dollar value of all final goods and services produced in a country during a single year
standard of living
the material well-being of an individual, group, or nation measured by how well their necessities and luxuries are satisfied
when people, businesses, regions, and/or nations concentrate on goods and services that they can produce better than anyone else
division of labor
the breaking down of a job into separate, smaller tasks to be performed individually
A reliance on others, as they rely on you, to provide goods and services to be consumed.
a system in which private citizens own most, if not all, of the means of production and decide how to use them within legislated limits
economic system in which individuals and businesses are allowed to compete for profit with a minimum of government interference
the role of consumer as the ruler of the market, determining what products will be produced
private property rights
the freedom to own and use our own property as we choose as long as we do not interfere with the rights of others
the struggle that goes on between buyers and sellers to get the best products at the lowest prices
the driving force that encourages individuals and organizations to improve their material well-being
the act of buyers and sellers freely and willingly engaging in market transactions.
A movement to educate buyers about the purchases they make and to demand better and safer products from manufacturers
promise made by a manufacturer or a seller to repair or replace a product within a certain time period if it is found to be faulty
pools od money from many people who are invested in a selection of individual stocks and bonds chosen by financial experts
Downward sloping line that shows in graph form the quantities demanded at each possible price
law of demand
the concept that people are normally willing to buy less of a product if the price is high and more of it if the price is low
measure of responsiveness relating change in quantity demanded to a change in price
the amount of goods and services that producers are able and willing to sell at various prices during a specified time period
law of supply
the principle that suppliers will normally offer more for sale at higher prices and less at lower prices
Upward sloping line that shows in graph form the quantities supplied at each possible price.
the total of all the supply schedules of all the businesses that provide the same good or service
the degree to which resources are being used efficiently to produce goods and services.
a situation in which quantity supplied is greater than quantity demanded; situation in which government spends less than it collects in revenues
the price at which the amount producers are willing to supply is equal to the amount consumers are willing to buy
Type of business organization owned by many people but treated by law as though it were a person; it can own property, pay taxes, make contracts, etc.
A voluntary association of people formed to carry on some kind of economic activity that will benefit its members
association of workers organized to improve wages and working conditions for its members
situation in which union and company officials bring in a third party to try to help them reach an agreement
situation in which union and company officials submit the issues they cannot agree on to a third party for a final decision
when worker deliberately stop working in order to force an employer to give in to their demands
The obligation a business has to pursue goals that benefit society as well as themselves
Legislation to prevent new monopolies from forming and police those that already exist
a market situation in which the costs of production are minimized by having a single firm produce the product
situation in which a company pulls a product off the market or agrees to change it to make it safe
The percentage of people in the civilian labor force who are not working but are looking for jobs
the federal government's use of spending and taxation policies to affect overall business activity
Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)
a program that provides help for nutrition and health care to low-income women, infants, and children up to age 5
programs that require welfare recipients to exchange some of their labor in return for benefits
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