maintains conditions suitable for the life of the cell by regulating or controlling the passage of materials into and out of the cell
Cell exist in a ____ _______ of shapes.
Plant cells are more of what shape, and why?
rigid and box-like, because of the presence of the cell wall
What shapes do animal cells come in, and why?
different shapes, because the fluidity of the cell membrane, which is their only outer structure
What type of membrane is the cell membrane?
What is a semi-permeable membrane?
it allows certain substances to pass through freely, and restricts others completely
What is the cell membrane mostly made up of?
a bilayer of phospholipids and proteins
What protrudes from the outer surface of the cell membrane?
What are the carbohydrates attached to?
proteins or phospholipids
What is a carbohydrate attached to a protein called?
What is a carbohydrate attached to a phospholipid called?
What do the carbohydrates act as?
What do carbohydrates receive?
communications from other cells, and they detect chemical changes in their surroundings
What are the major components of the cell membrane?
phospholipids, carbohydrates, and proteins
What are the five functions of the cell membrane?
1. protects the cell by acting as a barrier 2. regulates the transport of substances in and out of the cell 3. receives chemical messengers from other cell 4. acts as a receptor 5. cell mobility, secretions, and absorptions of substances
What two things does the bilayer of phospholipids have?
a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail
What does the hydrophilic head have?
an affinity for water
What does the hydrophobic tail have?
an aversion to water
What does the phospholipids portion of the cells membrane block the passage of?
most of the molecules except water and a few ions
What controls the entry and exit of substances?
the cell membrane
Do proteins play a role in cell recognition?
Who won a Nobel Prize in 1973, and why did they win it?
Joseph Goldstein and Michael Brown, for their discovery of how carbohydrates present on the cell membrane control the level of cholesterol in the human blood
What did Joseph Goldstein and Michael Brown prove?
that glycoproteins protruding from the cell membrane bind to cholesterol particles that circulate in the blood and take them to the cell to make cell membrane
What is cholesterol a key factor in?
the production of hormones like testosterones, progesterone, and bile which, helps in the digestion of fat
What happens if these particles are not taken into the cell?
they could build up in blood vessels and lead to atherosclerosis or narrowing of the arteries which can lead to a heart attack
The greater number of ________ on the cell membrane, the more ___________ containing particles are removed from the blood
How many glycoproteins on the cell membrane, are in a normal cell?
How many people out of how many people have an abnormally small number of glycoproteins on the cell membrane?
1 in 500 people
If you are one of those people what do you have?
a higher risk of heart attack
Can people with a normal gene have high cholesterol levels?
yes, because when the cell's cholesterol needs are met, the glycoproteins shut off
How do substances move in and out of the cell?
two methods: active and passive transport
What happens during active transport?
substances move against the concentration gradient , from a region of low concentration to a region of high concentration
What does the transportation of molecules require?
Since they move against the concentration gradient during active transport, what is used to move substances?
energy in the form of adenosine tri phosphate
What happens during passive transport?
substances move along the concentration gradient
Why is this type of transport called passive transport?
because energy is not required to move molecules
What is transported against the concentration gradient?
sugar molecules and proteins
Does active transport take place in all cells?
yes, and in some cells it accounts for more than half of the cell's energy expenditure
What is an example of active transport?
the sodium-potassium pump
What happens during this transport?
3 sodium ions are pumped to the outside of the cell for each 2 potassium ions that moves into the cell
What takes place in all human cells? And what cells is especially in
the sodium-potassium pump, especially nerve and muscle cells
What is used to operate the sodium-potassium pump?
one third of the body's energy expenditure
What are two types of active transport that move large molecules across the cell membrane?
exocytosis and endocytosis
a type of active transport where molecules are exported out of the cell.
Before the molecules are sent out of the cell in exocytosis, they must first be what?
surrounded by a membrane which is called the secretion vesicle
What are some examples of exocytosis?
production and release of materials required for the construction of cell wall, and the production and release of hormones
a type of active transport were substances are brought into the cell
What are two types of endocytosis?
phagocytosis and pinocytosis
it is like cellular drinking
What happens during pinocytosis?
small vesicles form out of the plasma membrane and carry liquid or smaller molecules into the cell from outside
equivalent to cellular eating
What happens during phagocytosis?
large molecules or small unicellular organisms are taken into the cell
What is an example of phagocytosis?
the engulfing of bacterium by ameba. the ameba encloses the bacterium and releases enzymes to digest it. the nutrients are absorbed by the ameba, and the unabsorbed waste is discharged by exocytosis
a type of fat
What is cholesterol used to make?
cell membrane, sex hormones, vitamin D, and bile
What does bile do?
breaks down fat
Where do glycoproteins take cholesterol?
into the cell
What foods are high in potassium
avocados and bananas
How much percent of the cells energy is used to take in potassium?
Where are the beta cells?
in the pancreas
What does APC stand for?
antigen present in cells
What happens when a white blood cell sees a new bacteria?
it will locate, engulf, and disintegrate it slowly, the second time it goes much faster. this is called cell recognition
What is macrophage?
a type of immune cell
high to low
What are the three types of passive transport?
diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and osmosis
What is diffusion dependent on?
the concentration gradient
Does diffusion need energy?
As molecules diffuse from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration, what happens?
the concentration eventually becomes equal
What happens when concentration evens out?
it reaches equilibrium
What is able to diffuse through the cell membrane?
small molecules such as water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen
What are the factors affecting the rate of diffusion?
*state of matter *concentration gradient and slope of concentration gradient *size of molecules *temperature
What are the three state of matter?
solid, liquid, gas
What are the rates for state of matter from slowest to fastest
*solid *liquids *gases
the number of particles or ions present in a given space
What can the difference in the concentration gradient affect?
the rate of diffusion
The _________ the difference in concentration between the high and low regions, the _________ the molecules will diffuse.
The rate of diffusion increases with what?
an increase in temperature
What happens when heat is applied?
molecules absorb energy and tend to move along the concentration gradient
Where does tea diffuse faster? Hot or Cold water?
Which molecules diffuse faster?
Smaller molecules are less likely to what?
collide with opposing larger molecules when they move from a region of more to a region of less
What happens during facilitated diffusion?
substances move along the concentration gradient, however during this, proteins called carrier proteins help in the transport of substances
Why are carrier proteins required during facilitated diffusion?
to move molecules larger than water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen into the cell
What do carrier proteins form?
channels through the cell membrane to facilitate the movement of larger molecules
How do the carrier proteins help?
by increasing the rate of diffusion
the diffusion of water through a semi permeable membrane from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
How are water molecules able to move freely through the cell membrane?
because they are very small and can easily pass through
How is the direction of the flow of water determined?
by the amount of solute and solvent present inside and outside of the cell
When water moves into a cell as result of osmosis, it creates pressure within the cell, called what?
osmotic pressure or the force of osmosis
homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances
What is a solution usually made up of?
the result of the combination of a solvent and solute
the substance that is dissolved in another substance
the substance in which the solute is dissolved
What is the most common of solvents?
What are solutions with water as the solvents called?
What is an example of a gas mixing with a liquid?
What does the amount of solute and solvent present in a solution determine?
the concentration of the solution
During osmosis, the direction of the flow of water depends on what?
the solute/solvent concentration
the relative concentration of solute on either side of a cell membrane
Based on tonicity there are three types of solutions, which are:
hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic
a solution that has a high solute concentration and less solvent concentration compared to the outside environment
What is an example of a hypertonic solution?
in a hypertonic salt solution, there is more salt than water
What happens when cells are placed in a hypertonic salt solution?
water molecules will move out of the cell and salt molecules will move into the cell
What is the marine environment?
a hypertonic solution for many organisms
What do these animals have?
special mechanisms to prevent water from leaving their cell and hence prevent dehydration due to loss of water
What do animal cells undergo, when they are placed in a hypertonic solution?
where the cell shrivels up as it loses water molecules, and salt molecules enter the cell
What do plant cells undergo, when they are placed in a hypertonic solution?
where the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall as the cell shrinks due to loss of water
Why does the cell not lose its shape during plasmolysis?
because the cell wall is a rigid structure
one that has less solute and more solvent compared to the outside environment
What happens to cells in a hypotonic solution?
they gain water because there is more water outside of the the cell than inside of the cell
What can happen to animal cells in a hypotonic solution?
they can lyse or rupture
Why will the animal cells rupture?
water diffuses into the cell as a result of osmosis, and since animal cells don't have a cell wall, the cell membrane will rupture due to increased osmotic pressure
Where do freshwater organisms live? What is their tendency?
in a hypotonic solution, to gain water
What do these organisms have?
special mechanisms that prevent rupturing
What does the contractile vacuole in freshwater protozan remove?
water that enters the cell
What cells do not tend to rupture?
plant cells, and cells with a cell wall
What is osmotic pressure also called?
the concentration of solute is the same on both sides of the membrane, inside and outside of the cell
What happens to a cell that is placed in an isotonic solution?
it neither gains or loses water
red blood cells are very vulnerable to changes in concentration because...
they don't have any mechanism to remove excess water
How can shrinking or bursting of red blood cells be prevented?
blood plasma or the blood fluid should be isotonic