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America Past and Present, Eighth Edition

Aaron Burr

Vice president during Thomas Jefferson's presidency. Tied with Jefferson in the electoral college.

Alexander Hamilton

Secretary of the Treasury during Washington's presidency. Wanted a strong national government and a large army. Became the leader of the Federalist Party.

Alien and Sedition Acts

Series of acts in which foreigners could be expelled from the country, new immigrants had to wait 14 years before applying for citizenship, and criticism of the US government was illegal.

Battle of Fallen Timbers

1794 battle which ended hostilities between American settlers and Native Americans in the Northwest Territory.

Charles Pinckney, John Marshall, Elbridge Gerry

Sent to France to obtain compensation for American ships and to void 1778 treaties (3).

Convention of Montefontaine

Negotiations between the US and France. France refused to compensate for American ships, but voided 1778 treaties and lifted restrictions on US commerce.

Defense of the Constitutionality of the Bank

Hamilton's second report to Congress. Proposed the establishment of a national bank. Signed by Washington in 1791.

Edmond Genet

French minister to the United States. Authorized private American vessels to seize British ships in the name of France, violating US neutrality. Requested asylum and spent the rest of his life in New York.

Edmund Randolph

First attorney general of the United States. Secretary of State after Jefferson's resignation.

Election of 1800

Jefferson and Aaron Burr tied in the electoral college. Decision sent to the House of Representatives and Jefferson chosen as president.

Estates General

French general assembly. Called in 1789 by Louis XVI, beginning the French Revolution.

Federal Census of 1790

First federal census. Counted about 3,929,214 people, 700,000 of whom were African American slaves


A political party originally led by Hamilton. Believed in a strong national government and a large army, promoted order over liberty, and was pro-Britain.

General Anthony Wayne

Lead an army against Native Americans in the Northwest Territory. Decisive victory at Battle of Fallen Timbers.

General Arthur St. Clair

Lead a militia against Native Americans in the Northwest Territory. Defeated in 1791.

General Josiah Harmar

Lead a militia against Native Americans in the Northwest Territory. Defeated in 1790.

George Washington

First president of the United States. Disliked political parties, but often reflected Federalist beliefs. Warned against permanent alliances with other countries.

Henry Knox

Secretary of War during Washington's presidency.

Implied powers

Powers not specifically stated in the Constitution.


When Britain captured ships, many sailors were forced to join the British Navy.


A political group that took over France in the late eighteenth century.

James Madison

Strong Republican who shared many of Jefferson's beliefs. Wrote the Virginia Resolutions, supporting states' rights.

Jay's Treaty

An unpopular treaty with Britain, in which Britain agreed to abandon frontier posts and allow small American ships to trade in the West Indies, but refused to compensate for ships seized until Americans paid debts from before the Revolution.


A political party originally led by Jefferson. Believed in a weak national government and a small army, promoted liberty over order, and was pro-France.

John Adams

Second president of the United States. Federalist, but did not share many of Hamilton's beliefs. Voided 1778 treaties with France. Disliked Thomas Jefferson, his republican vice president.

John Jay

First Chief Justice of the United States. Negotiated an unpopular treaty with Britain.

John Marshall

Chief Justice from 1801-1835. Nominated by John Adams as one of the midnight judges.

Judiciary Act

Established a Supreme Court and 13 district courts. (1789)

Midnight judges

Federalist judges appointed by Adams in the last days of his presidency.

Philip Freneau

Influential American poet and nationalist.

Pinckney's Treaty

Spain agreed to open the Mississippi River, allow Americans to deposit goods at New Orleans, secure a southern boundary on the 31st parallel, and stay out of Indian affairs. Also called the Treaty of San Lorenzo.

Proclamation of Neutrality

Issued by Washington in 1793. Declared the US neutral in the conflict between Britain and France.


An undeclared war between France and the US, in which France seized American ships.

Reign of Terror

Period of violence in France between 1793 and 1794. Characterized by mass executions.

Report on Manufactures

Hamilton's third report to Congress. Proposed that the national government promote industry. Not signed by Washington.

Report on the Public Credit

Hamilton's first report to Congress. The US promised to fund its obligations at full face value and the federal government would pay remaining state debts. Signed by Washington in 1790.


France's foreign minister. Refused to negotiate with the US without a bribe.

Thomas Jefferson

Secretary of State during Washington's presidency, vice president during Adams's presidency. Leader of the Republican party. Wanted a weaker national government and a small army.

Treaty of Greenville

Treaty between Native Americans and US settlers which ended hostilities and ceded present-day Ohio to the US.

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

Documents written by Madison and Jefferson defending states' rights.

Washington's Farewell Address

Washington announced his resignation. Warned the US to avoid political factions and permanent alliances with other nations.

Whiskey Rebellion

Farmers from Western Pennsylvania protested a tax on whiskey passed in 1791. Washington and Hamilton led and army against the rebels, but no one was convicted.

XYZ Affair

Talleyrand and his secretaries refused to negotiate with the US without a bribe.

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