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history before written records

Neolithic Age

the new Stone Age

Paleolithic Age

the old Stone Age. used stone tools

Hunters and Gatherers

hunted for meat and fish with sticks, stones and bare hands. Gathered fruits, nuts, berries and eggs.

Homo Sapiens

"thinking man." Two kinds, Cro- Magnon and Neanderthal

Australopithecus Afarensis

Lucy. Fossils found in Ethiopia. 1974

Homo Habilis

"skilled man"

Homo Erectus

"walks upright"


lived in Paleolithic Age. Discovered in Germany. First to bury their dead. Named after a river. (Sloped forehead, bigger nose bone, larger skull, muzzle shaped mouth.)

Cro- Magnon Man

Made tools. Discovered in France. Played music. (shorter nose bone, opposite of Neanderthals.)

Neolithic/ Agriculture Revolution

Happened in the New Stone Age. shift in human history from food gathering to food producing.


people who travel to follow food from season to season.


staying in one place.


prepare for crops.


early humans.


study the biological and cultural development of humans. study remains of hominids.


study the remains of ancient human societies and cultures.

Hammurabi's Code

set of laws put together by King Hammurabi.

"The Land Between the Rivers"


Six characteristics of civilization

System of government, Food supply, Special different jobs, Classes, Culture, Religion.


earliest known civilization. Sumerians were the first city builders in Mespotamia.


controlled flood waters and irrigated crops.


a way of supplying water to an area of land.


royal authority. monarchy.

City- State

a city an surrounding territory which also has its own independent government.


a Sumerian temple which means "mountain god". They served as city centers.


present day Mesopotamia.


City- State in Iraq

Sumerian Gods

personified forces of nature. Wind, rain, sky, sun, moon.

Sumerian Priests

Spiritual leaders who lead most of the very early civilizations.


earliest rulers of Sumerian city-states.

Tablet Houses

Sumerian schools.


Sumerian writing made of hundred of markings shaped like wedges.

Cradle of Civilization

Area around the Tigris River and Euphrates River, and Mesopotamia. Also known as the Fertile Crescent.


A student that graduated from school. Also known as a writer. Worked for Temples, the palace, the government or army.


Passed from parent to child.

Sumerian Assembly



Epic story of King Gilgamesh, who searched for immortality/ a Sumerian legend. Believed to be the first story.


Character in the story of Gilgamesh.


a group of countries under a single authority. Emperor or Empress.

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