59 terms

American Pageant 12th edition Unit 1

All key terms from the first unit of the American Pageant US history book
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Terms in this set (...)

Lord Baltimore
A man of a prominent English Catholic family that founded Maryland; caused the Act of Toleration to be passed by founding a Catholic settlement and causing a feud with the Protestants
Act of Toleration
a political act that permitted practice of Catholicism in the colonies; shaped the foundation for America's freedom of religion and helped them branch out of England's Protestant rule
Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams
Hutchinson-claimed that the "saved" need not follow the laws (antinomianism)
Williams-popular Salem minister that questioned the Puritans' religious regulation, founded Baptism; both of them made valuable religious arguments that helped lead to the freedom of religion for all
Providence
Founded by Roger Williams (1636), Native Americans were dealt with fairly in buying land and religious freedom was extended to all.
Rhode Island
In 1644, Parliment granted Roger Williams a charter, joining Providence and Portsmouth into Rhode Island.
Half-Way Covenant
the groups of people that were accepted into the Puritan church, but not necessarily converted; let more people into the Puritan church and started to stray away from the originally strict codes of the Puritans, taking a small step closer to religious freedom
Quakers and William Penn's "holy Experiment"
Quakers-worshippers of Jesus that were shunned by Puritans; named for emotional quaking during worship.
W. Penn-founded Pennsylvania that accepted Quakers,
lots of people flocked to PA for religious toleration, therefore moving a step closer to total religious freedom
The Great Awakening
the large, widespread religious movement in the 1730s and 1740s; brought some of the first generation zeal back into the colonies, and it was the first mass movement out of colonial boundaries
Jonathan Edwards
preacher that painted vivid pictures of God holding people, over the fiery pit of hell in his sermons; basically started the Great Awakening
George Whitefield
A very emotional preacher that moved many people, including Jonathan Edwards, to tears; kept the flames of the Great Awakening burning bright and strong
Rice Plantations
These plantations grew food for the West Indies, and relied on slave labor. Found in South Carolina.
Tobacco Farms
These were mainly small farms in North Carolina, but larger tobacco plantations were found in other parts of the colonies
John Cabot
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Jamestown
A Colony in Virginia, The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony. The settlement became part of the Joint Stock Virginia Company of London in 1620. Grew to be a prosperous shipping port.
Virginia
The first Africans are brought to Virginia; Virginia was formed by the Virginia Company as a profit-earning venture; The Virginia House of Burgesses formed, the first legislative body in colonial America
Captain John Smith
He was the leader of the Virginia Colony. He was the first person to map out the Chesapeake Bay. He trained the settlers to farm and work, which saved the colony from downfall.
John Rolfe
The husband of Pocahontas, and father of the tobacco industry; became a savior for the economy of the Virginia colony, by mass producing tobacco products
Pochahontas
The daughter of the Powhatan chief, Powhatan. She married John Rolfe, and created a peaceful atmosphere, between the natives and white settlers
Puritans
They didn't agree with the Church of England, and wanted to "purify" it; first large groups of settlers to populate the New World, were Puritans
Separatists
They were extreme Puritans, that wanted to completely break away from the Church of England; The first group to arrive in 1620 (Pilgrims), and created a very crude form of democracy, in their Plymouth colony (Mayflower Compact)
John Winthrop
The governor of the Bay Colony, that believed in the "city on a hill" covenant; helped establish Massachusetts' economy, and allowed it to become the largest colony in the New World
Great Migration
Puritans wanted to remove all "taints" from the Church of England. Feared individualistic behavior, and formed communities of support, and assumed responsibility for all people around them. (holy watchers) the "Promised Land"- establish holy communities devoted to serving God.
Thomas Hooker
He led a group of Boston Puritans dissatisfied with the Massachusetts Bay colony. Founded Hartford (1636), which is now Connecticut. He was called "the father of American democracy", because he said that, people have a right to choose their magistrates.
Connecticut
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New Hampshire
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The Carolinas
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New York
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New Jersey
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Maryland
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Pennsylvania
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Delaware
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Georgia
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James Oglethorpe
A man keen on prison reform in Georgia; saved the "Charity Colony", by repelling the Spanish and, mortgaging his own personal fortune
Wampanoags
An Indian tribe led by Metacom.
Metacom; King Philip's War
Metacom, aka King Phillip, joined together the Native American tribes to fight the colonists, a war that lasted from 1675 to 1676
Mayflower Compact
The short agreement written by, the Pilgrims, to form a crude government, and submit to majority rule; one of the things taken into account when writing the US Constitution, was this document
Virginia House of Burgesses
1619 - The Virginia House of Burgesses formed, the first legislative body in colonial America. Later other colonies would adopt houses of burgesses.
William Berkeley
The governor of Virginia, who established trade with the Indians and refused to protect his people, from their brutal hostility; his actions led to Bacon's Rebellion, and ignited the mutiny of more indentured servants; therefore, he was a major cause of the increased use of black slaves
Bacon's Rebellion
A rebellion that took place in 1676, where 1000 landless whites led by Nathaniel Bacon, went down to the governor's building, and caused a riot; caused wealthy landowners, to be wary of indentured servants, causing African slaved to be more widely used
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, 1639
This established Connecticut's government, and gave power mostly to substantial citizens; The modern constitution that helped shape, our country's original voting laws and regulations
Corporate Colonies
Colonies operated by joint-stock companies during the early years of the colonies, such as Jamestown
Royal Colonies
Colonies under the direct authority and rule of the king's government, such as Virginia after 1624
Proprietary Colonies
Colonies under the authority of individuals granted charters of ownership by the king, such as Maryland and Massachusetts
Chesapeake Colonies
The now divided area once known as the Virginia company; composed of Maryland and Virginia (1632)
Maryland becomes first proprietary colony (1632)
Joint-Stock Colonies
Colonies funded by investors. The combined group of investors forms a joint-Stock company, which in turns loans money to the colony in the hope that it turns a profit for them.
Virginia Company
A promise of gold, to settle in the New World from, King James and guarantees them the same rights of Englishmen; this gave settlers an incentive, to settle in the New World, and therefore helped increase the population of the colonies
Mercantilism
The idea that money is power, and the more gold or silver a country has in its treasury, the more global power it has; greatly stifled the colonies' economic growth, and gave American the feeling of being controlled by the British, and was therefore an important factor in starting the revolution.
Navigation Laws
The restricted colonial trade, so they could only trade with English colonies, resulting in a lot of smuggling; caused the colonies' economies to plummet, and led to the Glorious Revolt, placing Protestant rulers on the throne
Sir Edmund Andros (Dominion of New England)
The supporter of the Church of England, and ruthless leader of the Dominion of New England; another factor that led to the Glorious Revolt, being driven out of the colonies and back to England
Glorious Revolution
also called the Revolution of 1688, ended the Dominion of England, the overthrow of King James II of England, by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stakeholder: William Orange-Nassau (William of Orange).
Salutary Neglect
Salutary Neglect a term coined by British statesman Edmund Burke regarding the English colonies; idea that the colonies benefited by being left alone, without too much British interference
Indentured Servitude
The working for someone for a specified period of time, in exchange for passage to the New World; the servants eventually became mutinous, and led to the introduction of black slaves in the New World
"Headright" System
A system in which, wealthy landowners would pay for the passage of an indentured servant, in exchange for 50 acres of land, and their servitude; eventually, this led to Bacon's Rebellion, and the formation of huge plantations.
Slavery
The first slaves arrived in the colonies in 1619, and were not slaves for life, but worked for a period of time, like an indentured servant. Then, discriminatory laws were passed and, slaves nor their offspring were never freed. Slavery was mostly common in the Southern Colonies
Triangular Trade
A three way system of trade, during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa.
"Middle Passage"
The transatlantic voyage for African slaves, in which they were packed tightly into boats, and shipped off; set a precedent for the treatment, of African slaves as property, not human beings
Colombian Exchange
Americans traded their maize, potatoes, and tomatoes, which became very important crops in Europe by the 18th century. Similarly, Europeans introduced manioc and peanut to tropical Asia and West Africa, where they flourished in soils that otherwise would not produce large yields.
Bible Commonwealth
Located in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, heavily regulated admission (John Cotton); led to Massachusetts, becoming an efficient, tightly knit community, that shared common ideas of religion
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
A group of men, and women, that protested the Stamp Act through means of violence, ransacking, hanging, boycotting, and tar and feathers; led to the breaking down of Parliament, forcing them to repeal the Stamp Act