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Young person who learns a skill from a more experienced worker.


Skilled worker who makes things by hand.

triangular trade routes

Three-sided trade route between the 13 Colonies, the West Indies, and Africa; included the slave trade.

Middle Passage

Name given to the second leg of the triangular trade routes; extended from West Africa to the West Indies.


Port City in southeastern South Carolina.

West Africa

Western region of Africa

West Indies

Islands between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, extending from Florida in North America to Venequela in South America.


City in southeastern Pennsylvania, was the capital of the United States from 1790 to 1800.

Benjamin Franklin

1706-1790 Writer, scientist, inventor, and diplomat. He helped write the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.

Eliza Lucas Pinckney

1722-1793 South Carolina plantation owner who became the first person in the colonies to successfully raise a crop of indigo.


Ability to rely on oneself for most of what one needs.

town common

Open space in the center of many New England and Middle Colony towns where cattle and sheep could graze.


Capital and largest city of Massachusetts. Harvard, the oldest college in the United States was established near Boston.


City in southeastern Virginia, capital of the colony of Virginia from 1699-1779. William and Mary, the second college in the United States, was opened in Williamsburg, Virginia in 1693.


City in southern Rhode Island. In 1763, Jews in Newport, Rhode Island built what today is the oldest synagogue in the United States.

George Washington

1732-1799 First president of the United States,1789-1797. Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution and president of the Constitutional Convention.

George Whitefield

1714-1770 Minister during the Great Awakening who traveled throughout the American Colonies

John Peter Zenger

1697-1746 Printer who was arrested for libel in 1734. His trial helped establish the principle of freedom of the press.

Great Awakening

Important religious movement among Christians that began in the Colonies in the 1730's. This movement revived many colonists' interest in religion.


Reference book with helpful facts and figures.

Venture Smith

1729-1805 African enslaved in New England who purchased his freedom and wrote a book telling the story of his life.

Olaudah Equiano

1750-1797 African who was enslaved and brought to North America in 1756. He later wrote a book about the journey from West Africa to the colonies.

Stono Rebellion

Slave rebellion in South Carolina in 1739.

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