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A contemporary psychologist who developed a theory about how people deal with moral questions

Who was Lawrence Kohlberg?

6 stages, which fall into 3 categories

What does Kohlberg's theory consist of?


How many studies did Kohlberg do?

1958, 1963, and 1970

In what years did Kohlberg's studies take place?

72 boys, ages 10, 13, 16

Who was involved in Kohlberg's 1958 study?

gave them a dilemma to solve and how they solved it

How did Kohlberg decide what stage someone fell into?

younger children, delinquents, boys and girls from across the world

Who was involved in Kohlberg's 1963 and 1970 studies?

Heinz Dilemma

What was the dilemma called that Kohlberg used?

A woman is suffering from a rare form of cancer, and she needs a special drug that costs more money than her husband can afford, so her husband broke into the druggist's store to get the drug

What was the Heinz dilemma (short description)?

everyone has to go through these stages, can't move back or jump stages, but you can get "stuck" in stages

What are the stipulations for Kohlberg's six stages?

Obedience and Punishment

What is stage 1?

Preconventional Morality

What is level 1?

physical consequences

In stage 1, what determines goodness or badness?

a fear of authority and being motivated by the avoidance of punishment

What characterizes stage 1?

Personal Usefulness

What is stage 2?

I'll scratch your back if you scratch mine

What characterizes personal usefulness?

Yes, but only if they gain something from it

Do people in stage 2 occasionally do things helpful for others?

Conventional Morality

What is level 2?

Conforming to the Will of the group

What is stage 3?

Rules and whether they exist or not

What becomes important in stage 3?

trying to be a good person to meet the expectations of others; peer pressure

What characterizes stage 3?

Law and Order

What is stage 4?

Stage 4, Law and Order

What stage are most Americans in?

breaking a law

What is immorality to someone in stage 4?

laws must be followed. if they are bad, they must be changed

What characterizes stage 4?

Post-Conventional Morality

What is Level 3?

social contract

What is stage 5?


What philosophy comes out of stage 5?

The world is viewed as holding different opinions, rights, and values, utilitarianism

What characterizes stage 5?

Universal Ethical Principle

What is stage 6?

they are valid as long as they are grounded in justice

What is a person in stage 6's view of laws?

8 years old

What is the age of reason?

No because someone can get stuck in a stage

Does chronological age relate to the moral stages?

external formation (needs to be taught)

What does mature conscience need?

the obligation to do good and avoid evil

What is the root dictate of conscience?

it interferes with what we want to do and can create tension

What is the problem with law?

it works against the good of society

What is the problem with individual liberty?

it denies personal basic rights

What is the problem with the good of society?

no need to follow rules you didn't have a say in, rules restrict freedom

What are some reasons for rebellion?

No, it is a vital and necessary part of growing from the dependence of childhood to the independence of adulthood

Is rebellion always bad?

Recognize and understand the human thrust for independence in each of us, Respect the rights and duties of others, Accept the role of law in a stable society, and Accept the need for creative responsibility in any moral decision-making process

What are 4 solutions for the tension that laws create?

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