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23 terms

Biology Cell Parts

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Cell Membrane/Plasma Membrane
Holds everything together; regulates what enters and exits cell; communicates with other cells via protein receptors; in both cells
Cell Wall
Helps protect cell from damage; maintains cell's shape; provides structure; only in plant cells
Centriole
Creates/uses microtubules to help with cell division; movement of chromosomes during animal cell division; only in animal cells
Chloroplast
Takes unusable sunlight to usable chemicals; produces glucose; converts energy; powers photosynthesis; only in plant cells
Cilia
Helps move mucus in humans; transportation; only in animal cells
Cytoplasm
Supports by filling inside with aqueous solution; holds organelles and cytoskeleton; 1st step of cellular respiration takes place in cytoplasm; in both cells
Cytosol
Supports cell expansion and growth; only in animal cells
Flagella
Transportation; only in animal cells
Golgi
Transports vesicles; stores proteins before they're shipped out; assists in lysosome production; modifies, stores and ships things to the endoplasmic reticulum; in both cells
Micro/Intermediate Filaments
Helps cell move and changes shape; makes up cytoskeleton with microtubules; in both cells
Lysosomes
Recycles damaged cell parts; stores and destroys bacteria if it enters cell; stores digestive enzymes; digests cell's food and stores waste; apoptosis: programmed cell death; only in animal cells
Microtubules
Anchor and move organelles; makes up cytoskeleton with filaments; in both cells
Mitochondria
Releases products of glucose (CO2+H2O+ATP); carries out cellular respiration; creates ATP (energy currency of cell); see breakdown process diagram on written table; in both cells
Nuclear Envelope/Nuclear Membrane
Allows RNA to leave; holds nucleus; controls flow of materials into and out of the nucleus; double membrane; protects DNA by separating/protecting it from rest of cell; in both cells
Nuclear Pore
Allows RNA to leave; "pores" that allow things in and out of the nucleus; regulates what enters and exits by its very small size; in both cells
Nucleus
Contains DNA; controls all cellular activities; in both cells
Nucleolus
Makes building blocks of ribosomes (RNA); in both cells
Peroxisomes
Breaks down toxins, specifically peroxide (H2O2); digests fatty acids; holds digestive enzymes; in both cells
Ribosomes (Bound)
Makes proteins used outside cells; where protein synthesis takes place; attached to something else; in both cells
Ribosomes (Free)
Makes proteins used inside cells; where protein synthesis takes place; not attached to something else; in both cells
Rough ER
Transports vesicles to Golgi; ribosomes (bound) in Rough ER; makes membranes and modifies proteins; in both cells
Smooth ER
No ribosomes; detoxifies drugs (Smooth ER found in liver); synthesizes (makes) lipids and stores calcium; in both cells
Vacuoles (central and regular)
Water pressure allows plants to move; functions as ribosomes and regulates growth; stores water; can store toxins; stores food; central vacuole in plant cells, regular vacuoles in animal cells