Terms in this set (62)
All of the life on Earth exists in a region known as...
Groups of different species that live together in a defined area make up...
what are the things that use energy they take in from the environment to convert inorganic molecules into complex organic molecules
what is another name for autotroph?
The series of steps in which a large fish eats a small fish has eaten algae is...
the food chain
Which of the following organisms is a decomposer - foxes, plants, worms, or birds?
The total mass of living tissue at each trophic level can be shown in a
Nutrients move through an ecosystem in
In the nitrogen cycle, bacteria that live on the roots of plants change what into what?
nitrogen gas into ammonia
Which biogeochemical cycle does NOT involve a stage where the chemical enters the atmosphere?
When an ecosystem is limited by a single nutrient that either is scarce or cycles very slowly, this substance is called
the branch of biology that deals with the relations of organisms to one another and to their physical surroundings is....
Name the different levels of organizations within the biosphere, from smallest to largest?
individual, population, communities, ecosystems, biomes, biosphere
How do scientists use modeling to study ecological changes?
ecologists make models to gain insight into complex phenomena such as the effects of global warming on ecosystems.
How is sunlight important to most ecosystems?
sunlight is the main energy source for life on Earth. Without a constant input of energy, living systems cannot function.
the biological conversion of one or more carbon molecules (usually carbon dioxide or methane) and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation of inorganic molecules (e.g. hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide) or methane as a source of energy, rather than sunlight is called....
what is a heterotroph
an organism deriving its nutritional requirements from complex organic substances (ex: consumers)
All the biotic and abiotic factors in a pond form an
A relationship in which one organism is helped and another is neither helped nor harmed is called
A form of symbiosis in which both organisms benefit is called
A type of symbiosis in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed is called
Natural disturbances, such as fires or hurricanes, can result in...
n a tropical rainforest, the dense covering formed by leafy tops of tall trees is called
List three density independent factors that can limit the growth of a population.
List three density dependent factors that can limit the growth of a population.
What is the relationship between competition and size?
What is the relationship between competition and size? A population is the number of individuals in the group. Competition is the struggle among organisms for food, space, and other vital requirements.
If an entire lynx population disappears, what is likely to happen to the hare population on which it preys?
It would increase because it wouldn't have any predators
Give an example of a density independent factor that has affected a human population and how it changed it.
Disease - Many diseases have affected humans all over the world! Some are common, and some are rare. Some are contagious, some are genetic.
Rainbow smelt and yellow perch attempt to occupy the same area. The more aggressive smelt survive; the perch do not. Is this a density independent or density dependent and what does it show?
density dependent; competition
A severe flood brings a lot of sediment and silt to lake Winnipeg. The turbidity of the lake increases greatly. Is this a density independent or density dependent and what does it show?
density independent; sunlight
A drought decreases the water level in Lake Winnipeg. The carrying capacity of the lake decreases. Is this a density independent or density dependent and what does it show?
density independent; natural disaster
Due to the introduction of rainbow smelt, Lake Winnipeg becomes crowded and some fish species do not survive. Is this a density independent or density dependent and what does it show?
density dependent; crowding
Since northern pike prey on yellow perch, an increase in the perch population causes an increase in pike population. Is this a density independent or density dependent and what does it show?
density dependent; predation
Many fish die due to an increase in water temperature. Is this a density independent or density dependent and what does it show?
density independent; temperature
Due to over-fishing, the number of walleye in Lake Winnipeg decreases. Is this a density independent or density dependent and what does it show?
density independent; human activities
A population is growing quickly when parasites cause disease to spread quickly. Is this a density independent or density dependent and what does it show?
density dependent; parasitism
Since Lake Sturgeon migrate long distance to spawn, many do not survive the trip. Is this a density independent or density dependent and what does it show?
density independent; behaivor
is this density dependent or density independent , depends on the density of a population
is this density dependent or density independent, doesn't depend on the density of a population
what does HIPPCO stand for?
Invasive Non Native Species
Population and Resource Use Growth
What is Habitat Destruction in the acronym, HIPPCO
-habitat is changed so that it cannot support the native species
-difficult to restore
What is Invasive and Non Native Species in the acronym, HIPPCO
Most species that are introduced are supposed to be beneficial.
The Non Native and Invasive species
What is Population and Resource Use in the acronym, HIPPCO?
-as human population grow, so do the overall resource usage
-there is a finite supply of resources
What is Climate Change in the acronym, HIPPCO
-humans are introducing carbon into the atmosphere through the consumption of fossil fuels
-the increasing global climate
What is Over Exploitation in the acronym, HIPPCO
- an overuse of the earths natural resources such as
what is competition, an example, and its inter-species relationship?
one organism attempts to obtain the same resource as another organism.
example: 2 animals fighting over something
relationship : -/-
what is predation, an example, and its inter-species relationship?
one organism hunts and captures another organism
example: an owl hunting and capturing a rat
relationship : +/ -
what is mutualism, an example, and its inter-species relationship?
both organisms benefit from each other
example: bees get pollen, and flowers reproduce.
relationship : +/+
what is commensalism, an example, and its inter-species relationship?
one organism benefits, the other is neither helped nor harmed.
example: clownfish get protection, anemone gets nothing from it.
relationship : +/0
what is parasitism, an example, and its inter-species relationship?
one organism benefits, the other is hurt.
example: a dog gets hurt, fleas get food
relationship : +/-
what things must all living things have
-respond to stimulus
what does the acronym Ink Pens Can Explode Blue Balloons
what is the definition of individual?
one organism of a species
what is the definition of organism?
individual living thing made up of one or many cells
what is the definition of species?
group of the same organism that when they breed, they produce the same fertile offspring
what is the definition of communtity
groups of organisms of different species that live in the same area
what is the definition of ecosystem
all organisms that live in the same area plus the non living and physical environment.
what is the definition of biome?
group of ecosystems that live in the same climate and dominant communities.
what is the definition of biosphere?
all living parts of a planet
what does the carbon cycle depend on?
photosynthesis and respiration.
what are limiting factors?
Anything that limits the size or type of populations in an ecosystem.
Three types: Abiotic, Density Dependent, Density Independent.
what are Abiotic Limiting Factors
Physical or nonliving characteristics that limit which life forms it will support.
Examples: Climate, Salinity, pH, Temperatures, Precipitation, Sunlight, Soil Type