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Praxis 2 PLT Elementary Education
Instruction and Assessment
Terms in this set (43)
A student uses concrete applications of the concept being taught to connect what he or she is learning to a concrete experience.
Teachers respond to the wide range of abilities present in the classroom.
The teacher offers the same core content to each student but provides varying levels of support for students.
The teacher finds the key content that must be learned and reduces the number of examples, activities, or lessons so that a student, can demonstrate the content and move on to another level.
The teacher breaks down a unit's content into smaller units or chunks and provides support and frequent feedback to the student as he or she demonstrates understanding of each chunk of information.
Groups that change as the students' learning needs change.
Involve explicitly showing students what something is or how to do something.
Visuals that show relationships between concepts, terms, facts or ideas in a learning activity.
Used to help students learn key vocabulary or concepts.
Used when a teacher wants students to understand the cyclical nature of a text.
An instructional strategy often suggested for students with memory difficulties or learning disabilities. Improves students ability to remember key information.
Incorporates information from 2 or more content areas.
Statements or records of law, government, science, mathematics, or history, unaltered form.
The teacher and the student engage in a discussion of the text.
An approach to teaching that involves students in the process of exploring the natural and material world in an effort to help them discover meaning.
Classroom activity in which students acquire new knowledge and skills while working on a complex, multifaceted project that yields a concrete end product.
Models of real-world activities to help students become immersed in the content being studied.
A brief activity or event at the beginning of the lesson that effectively engages all students' attention and focuses their thoughts on the learning objectives.
Behavioral and Cognitive Objectives
Focus on observable student behaviors and student's cognitive behavior.
List the broad goals of a school district, state, or school and provide subject-specific outlines of course content, standards, and performance expectations.
Child-centered curriculum that "emerges" from the children's interest and experiences. It involves both the participation of teachers and children in decision making.
Individual students complete work and then pair with an assigned student to check work and discuss content.
A cooperative learning model in which students work in small groups using cooperative inquiry, group discussion, and cooperative planning and projects, and then make presentations to the whole class on their findings.
Whole Group Investigation
Students work as a class to read, discuss, or solve a problem.
Set the level of performance expectations for student groups. General set and state and local level.
Describe what subject-matter knowledge students are expected to learn.
A test designed to asses what a person has learned.
-Teacher generated notes related to student academic progress, behavior, emotional development, or social development
-useful in explaining and/or justifying student progress
-includes specific dates, times, events, etc
A standardized test that is designed to measure a student's ability to acquire skills and knowledge.
Assessment procedures that test skills and abilities as they would be applied in real-life situations.
Criterion Referenced Tests
Determine how well a student performs on an explicit objective relative to a predetermined performance level, such as grade-level expectations or mastery.
Standardized tests given before instruction begins to help teachers understand student's learning needs.
Provide information about learning in progress and offer the teacher and the student an opportunity to monitor and regulate learning.
Known as standardized tests, used to determine a student's performance in relation to the performance of a group of peers who have taken the same test.
Essays and Short Answer: Teacher looks at all possible answers in an answer pool when grading.
Grade-Level Equivalent Scores
A method of scaling scores which evaluates students in terms of the grade level at which they are functioning.
Essays and Short Answer: General descriptions of criteria for success.
A test score that has not been transformed or converted in any way.
The extent to which an assessment is consistent with its measures.
Based on mathematical transformation of a raw scores.
A measure of variability that describes an average distance of every score from the mean.
Standard Error of Measurement
An index of the amount of error in a test or measure. The standard error of measurement is a standard deviation of a set of observations for the same test.
Standard nines. Represent range. Based on percentile rank and divide normal curve into nine parts.
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