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Writing, cities, arts and architecture, public works, job specialization, well-organized central government, complex religion, and social classes.

The 8 points of a civilization

Because they had a hard life.

Why did the Sumerians have a dark view on the afterlife?


What system of exchange was used in place of money?

bread and beer

What was the primary food and drink?

July to September

During what months did the Nile River flood?


Political and religious functions combined.

The climate preserved the artifacts

How did Egyptian artifacts survive for thousands of years?

Rosetta Stone

The discovery of this occurred in 1799, which had hieroglyphics, demotic, and greek writing, and became the key to understanding hieroglyphics.

Lower Egypt

where delta meets sea river is lowest (actually in north)

Upper Egypt

in the south, the river rises into the mountains in central Africa where it begins.Upper- in the south, the river rises into the mountains in central Africa where it begins.

King Menes

he was the first king of Egypt and united upper and lower Egypt and established the first dynasty.

King David

Who united the feuding Israelite tribes into a single nation?


land ruled by a single authority.


traingular area of Marshland formed by deposits of silt at the mouth of some rivers


the preservation of the dead


A pyramid shaped temple built by the Sumerians.


Governor of a province of the Persian empire


teaching a belief in one god


Egyptian Queen who encouraged trade with lands along the eastern Mediterranean

Ramses II

Pharaoh who spread Egyptian rule northward to Syria and conquered Nubia


Ruler who published a code of laws to help unite Babylonia


Ruler who united the Persian empire


King who encouraged Babylonian learning


Which geographic feature had the greatest incluence on Egypt?

the Nubians were a part of Egyptian culture

Why does Egyptian art often feature people from Nubia?


Most Egyptians were members of which group?

exchange of ideas

the movement of people across the Fertile Crescant resulted in the:

they saw their rulers as the gods' chief servants

How did the Sumerians differ from the Egyptians in the way they viewed their rulers?


Middle Eastern civilization was spread throughout the Mieditteranean by these people

Grain was grown along the Nile

What information supports the claim that egypt was the 'breadbasket of the world'?


What valuable resource was mined in Nubia?


What was an accomplishment in the Old Kingdom?

Irrigation systems and drainage projects

What were two accomplisments in the Middle Kingd om?

Strong rulers

what was an accomplishment in the New Kingdom?

alphabet, hieroglyphics, wagon wheel

What were 3 advances in technology and learning made by the peoples of the ancient Middle East?

cultural diffusion. land became more fertile, cities were built.

why did the Fertile Crescent become the crossroads of civilization?


what is a government in which the people hold the power?


who applied the priincepals of physics to make practical inventions and mastered the use of the lever and pulley>


what is a govnernment headed by a priveledged minority or upper class called?


what is a government called where a king/queen exercises central power?


who derived a formula to calculate the sides between a right triangle?


what are narrow water passageways called?


who was the blind poet who wandered through villages and sang of heroic deeds? wrote the iliad and the odyessey


Who was one of the greatest Athenian playrights who wrote Antigone and also survived the horrors of the Peloponnesian war?


Who was Alexander the Great's tutor? he was Plato's most famous student and set up the Lyceum.


Who was the wise and trusted leader who was appointed archon in 594 BC and outlawed debt slavery, granted citizenship to some foreigners and gave the Athenian assemble more say in decisions? introduced many reforms


Who was the reformer who broadaned the role of ordinary citizens in government?


Who led a small Spartan force to guard the small mountain pass at Thermoplylae and held out heroically against the massive persian force? he was king of sparta


Who caused the economy to thrive and the government to become more democratic? a statesman who established direct democracy in Athens


Who was Socrate's student, fled Athens for 10 years, set up the Academy and wrote the republic?


who was an outspoken critic of the Sophists, and Athenian stoneman and philosopher and confucted the 'socratic method'?


Who was the Greek physician whose oath set ethical standards for doctors? he studied the causes of illness and looked for cures.


what is a high city called?


What is the Greek's unique version of the city state called/


Wgar city controlled the vital straits that connected the Mediterranean and Black seas and held the Trojan war?


What is the place north of athens called?


Who was the greek leader who urged Athenians to build many warships and prepare other defenses if the Persian were to attack again?

Delian League

what was the alliance with other greek city states called?

Peloponnesian war

which war lasted 27 years and ended Athenian domination of the Greek world?


Who was the educated, foreign born woman who worked with perciles to turn Athens into the cultural center of Greece?

Athen's interference with Persian affairs

why did the Persian war begin?


what place did the rulers of the trading empire live in? capital of Crete

Heinrich Schliemann

Who was the wealthy German businessman who found evidence in Troy that the Trojan war was real and not a myth?


Who was a ruler who gained power by force in ancient Greece?


Who was the most powerful greek Olympian


what is a lawmaking body called?


art of skillful speaking


a form of government controlled by a small, powerful elite from the business class


From childhood, Sprtan boys were trained to be these


Athens enjoyed a golden age under the leadership of this person

Peloponnesian war

conflict between Athens and Sparta resulted in this

rule by a strong virtuous leader

according to Aristotle, the best government was:

reflected concern with form and order

Which description applies to the words of Greek artists and architects?


Who established an empire that extended from Greece to Egypt and India?


Following the Persian wars, Greece was dominated by:

religious festivals

greek theater evolved out of these

the spread of Greek culture

Alexanders' greatest achievement was this


this was the traditional form of government, which took place in the first civilizations located in river valleys. most governments evolved from this. it was mainly hereditary, meaning power was passed down from each generation to the next in the royal families.


This was the form of government where officials gain power by force, or without legal right. some gained power by imposing reforms


where leaders rule by a landholding elite. noble landowners seized the power in one point of time, resulting in this form of government


this form of government is controlled by a small, powerful elite from the business class or a powerful minority. They gain power by collecting the citizen's trust and gaining leadership


Citizens or leaders are elected in order to gain the nation's power


revolving around the sun


The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; birthplace of the Sumerian and Babylonian Civilizations.


The Persian ruler who conquered Babylon and later on freed the Jews from captivity.


The Greek's unique version of the city state

Alexander the Great

son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world

Fertile Crescent

Found along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, this was the first early river civilization. The cities in this area were governed by city-states and used irrigation to produce their crops. Considered the crossroads of civilization.


the scroll of parchment on which the first five books of the Hebrew Scripture is written


what were the Jews also called?


The son in law of Akhenaton. His tomb was found in 1922 by Howard Carter. Many things were found in his tombs such as chariots, weapons, furniture, jewelry, toys, games and food. He was a minor king.


having excellent morals; righteous, having values.


the second book of the Old Testament: tells of the departure of the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt led by Moses


conversation between two or more people


Questioned accepted ideas. Success was more important to these people than moral truth. Developed skills in rehetoric. Ambitious men used clevor rhetoric to advance their careers. Turmoil of the Peloponnesian war led many Athenians to follow these people. Older citizens, however, accused them of undermining traditional values.


the world's longest river (4180 miles)

Black land

the rich irrigated land that lies near the red land (a sun baked desert that stretches across North Africa)


Believed the afterlife would be a place of suffering because of the challanges they faced in life- figured the afterworld could be no better. The gold-rich land to the south of Egypt.

Tomb robbers

Were always tempted to steal from tombs. Tombs were stripped of their treasures long ago because of these.


The group of people who gained fame as sailors and traders. Also occupied a strong of cities along the Eastern Mediterranean, which is now the area of Lebanon and Syria.


skilled craftsworkers


the act of believing in multiple gods

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