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102 terms

Western Civilization Midterm

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Writing, cities, arts and architecture, public works, job specialization, well-organized central government, complex religion, and social classes.
The 8 points of a civilization
Because they had a hard life.
Why did the Sumerians have a dark view on the afterlife?
barter
What system of exchange was used in place of money?
bread and beer
What was the primary food and drink?
July to September
During what months did the Nile River flood?
theocratic
Political and religious functions combined.
The climate preserved the artifacts
How did Egyptian artifacts survive for thousands of years?
Rosetta Stone
The discovery of this occurred in 1799, which had hieroglyphics, demotic, and greek writing, and became the key to understanding hieroglyphics.
Lower Egypt
where delta meets sea river is lowest (actually in north)
Upper Egypt
in the south, the river rises into the mountains in central Africa where it begins.Upper- in the south, the river rises into the mountains in central Africa where it begins.
King Menes
he was the first king of Egypt and united upper and lower Egypt and established the first dynasty.
King David
Who united the feuding Israelite tribes into a single nation?
Empire
land ruled by a single authority.
Delta
traingular area of Marshland formed by deposits of silt at the mouth of some rivers
Mummification
the preservation of the dead
Ziggurat
A pyramid shaped temple built by the Sumerians.
Satrap
Governor of a province of the Persian empire
Monotheistic
teaching a belief in one god
Hatshepsut
Egyptian Queen who encouraged trade with lands along the eastern Mediterranean
Ramses II
Pharaoh who spread Egyptian rule northward to Syria and conquered Nubia
Hammurabi
Ruler who published a code of laws to help unite Babylonia
Darius
Ruler who united the Persian empire
Nebuchadnezzar
King who encouraged Babylonian learning
Nile
Which geographic feature had the greatest incluence on Egypt?
the Nubians were a part of Egyptian culture
Why does Egyptian art often feature people from Nubia?
Farmers
Most Egyptians were members of which group?
exchange of ideas
the movement of people across the Fertile Crescant resulted in the:
they saw their rulers as the gods' chief servants
How did the Sumerians differ from the Egyptians in the way they viewed their rulers?
Phoenicians
Middle Eastern civilization was spread throughout the Mieditteranean by these people
Grain was grown along the Nile
What information supports the claim that egypt was the 'breadbasket of the world'?
gold
What valuable resource was mined in Nubia?
Pyramids
What was an accomplishment in the Old Kingdom?
Irrigation systems and drainage projects
What were two accomplisments in the Middle Kingd om?
Strong rulers
what was an accomplishment in the New Kingdom?
alphabet, hieroglyphics, wagon wheel
What were 3 advances in technology and learning made by the peoples of the ancient Middle East?
cultural diffusion. land became more fertile, cities were built.
why did the Fertile Crescent become the crossroads of civilization?
democracy
what is a government in which the people hold the power?
archimedes
who applied the priincepals of physics to make practical inventions and mastered the use of the lever and pulley>
aristocracy
what is a govnernment headed by a priveledged minority or upper class called?
monarchy
what is a government called where a king/queen exercises central power?
Pythagoras
who derived a formula to calculate the sides between a right triangle?
strait
what are narrow water passageways called?
Homer
who was the blind poet who wandered through villages and sang of heroic deeds? wrote the iliad and the odyessey
Sophocles
Who was one of the greatest Athenian playrights who wrote Antigone and also survived the horrors of the Peloponnesian war?
Aristotle
Who was Alexander the Great's tutor? he was Plato's most famous student and set up the Lyceum.
Solon
Who was the wise and trusted leader who was appointed archon in 594 BC and outlawed debt slavery, granted citizenship to some foreigners and gave the Athenian assemble more say in decisions? introduced many reforms
Cleisthenes
Who was the reformer who broadaned the role of ordinary citizens in government?
Leonidas
Who led a small Spartan force to guard the small mountain pass at Thermoplylae and held out heroically against the massive persian force? he was king of sparta
Pericles
Who caused the economy to thrive and the government to become more democratic? a statesman who established direct democracy in Athens
Plato
Who was Socrate's student, fled Athens for 10 years, set up the Academy and wrote the republic?
Socrates
who was an outspoken critic of the Sophists, and Athenian stoneman and philosopher and confucted the 'socratic method'?
Hippocrates
Who was the Greek physician whose oath set ethical standards for doctors? he studied the causes of illness and looked for cures.
Acropolis
what is a high city called?
Polis
What is the Greek's unique version of the city state called/
Troy
Wgar city controlled the vital straits that connected the Mediterranean and Black seas and held the Trojan war?
Marathon
What is the place north of athens called?
Themistocles
Who was the greek leader who urged Athenians to build many warships and prepare other defenses if the Persian were to attack again?
Delian League
what was the alliance with other greek city states called?
Peloponnesian war
which war lasted 27 years and ended Athenian domination of the Greek world?
Aspasia
Who was the educated, foreign born woman who worked with perciles to turn Athens into the cultural center of Greece?
Athen's interference with Persian affairs
why did the Persian war begin?
Knossos
what place did the rulers of the trading empire live in? capital of Crete
Heinrich Schliemann
Who was the wealthy German businessman who found evidence in Troy that the Trojan war was real and not a myth?
Tyrant
Who was a ruler who gained power by force in ancient Greece?
Zeus
Who was the most powerful greek Olympian
legislature
what is a lawmaking body called?
rhetoric
art of skillful speaking
Oligarchy
a form of government controlled by a small, powerful elite from the business class
soldiers
From childhood, Sprtan boys were trained to be these
Pericles
Athens enjoyed a golden age under the leadership of this person
Peloponnesian war
conflict between Athens and Sparta resulted in this
rule by a strong virtuous leader
according to Aristotle, the best government was:
reflected concern with form and order
Which description applies to the words of Greek artists and architects?
Alexander
Who established an empire that extended from Greece to Egypt and India?
Athens
Following the Persian wars, Greece was dominated by:
religious festivals
greek theater evolved out of these
the spread of Greek culture
Alexanders' greatest achievement was this
Monarchy
this was the traditional form of government, which took place in the first civilizations located in river valleys. most governments evolved from this. it was mainly hereditary, meaning power was passed down from each generation to the next in the royal families.
Tyranny
This was the form of government where officials gain power by force, or without legal right. some gained power by imposing reforms
Aristocracy
where leaders rule by a landholding elite. noble landowners seized the power in one point of time, resulting in this form of government
Oligarchy
this form of government is controlled by a small, powerful elite from the business class or a powerful minority. They gain power by collecting the citizen's trust and gaining leadership
Democracy
Citizens or leaders are elected in order to gain the nation's power
heliocentric
revolving around the sun
mesopotamia
The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; birthplace of the Sumerian and Babylonian Civilizations.
Cyrus
The Persian ruler who conquered Babylon and later on freed the Jews from captivity.
Polis
The Greek's unique version of the city state
Alexander the Great
son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world
Fertile Crescent
Found along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, this was the first early river civilization. The cities in this area were governed by city-states and used irrigation to produce their crops. Considered the crossroads of civilization.
torah
the scroll of parchment on which the first five books of the Hebrew Scripture is written
Hebrews
what were the Jews also called?
Tutankhamen
The son in law of Akhenaton. His tomb was found in 1922 by Howard Carter. Many things were found in his tombs such as chariots, weapons, furniture, jewelry, toys, games and food. He was a minor king.
Virtuous
having excellent morals; righteous, having values.
Exodus
the second book of the Old Testament: tells of the departure of the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt led by Moses
Dialogue
conversation between two or more people
sophists
Questioned accepted ideas. Success was more important to these people than moral truth. Developed skills in rehetoric. Ambitious men used clevor rhetoric to advance their careers. Turmoil of the Peloponnesian war led many Athenians to follow these people. Older citizens, however, accused them of undermining traditional values.
Nile
the world's longest river (4180 miles)
Black land
the rich irrigated land that lies near the red land (a sun baked desert that stretches across North Africa)
Sumerians
Believed the afterlife would be a place of suffering because of the challanges they faced in life- figured the afterworld could be no better. The gold-rich land to the south of Egypt.
Tomb robbers
Were always tempted to steal from tombs. Tombs were stripped of their treasures long ago because of these.
Phoenicians
The group of people who gained fame as sailors and traders. Also occupied a strong of cities along the Eastern Mediterranean, which is now the area of Lebanon and Syria.
Artisans
skilled craftsworkers
Polytheistic
the act of believing in multiple gods