138 terms

apush ch.27

Kellogg Briand Pact
treaty outlawing war; signed by US, FRA, and 12 other nations in Paris
United States
emerged as richest nation in the world after WWI, displacing England
$10 billion
money Allied owed to the US
Hawley Smoot Tariff
1930 raised tariff to its highest rate; frustrated Euro nations unable to meet American financial obligations
crash of 1929
halted flow of US dollars across Atlantic; led to default on debt payments and bitterness
League of Nations
US unwilling to compromise American freedom of action and thus refused to join this international collective security
Soviet Union
govt. was ignored by US in 1920s; still conducted trade
came to power during the Russian Revolution
opened diplomatic relations between US and Russia in 1933
Latin America
where US took a more active foreign policy in 1920s; pursued political dominance and economic advantage
Haiti, Dominican Republic, Nicaragua
US marines were withdrawn from these places during Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover
Clark Memorandum
policy statement repudiating the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine; US had no right to intervene
Good Neighbor policy
FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations w/ Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force; nonintervention; trade w/ Latin America increased as a result
Cordell Hull
secretary of state signed a conditional pledge of nonintervention at Pan-American Conference 1933
US vs. Japan
naval rivals in the Pacific
wanted dominion over Asia; controlled Korea, Manchuria; wanted China
Washington Disarmament Conference
delegates from US, JAP, ENG met for political settlement of tense Asian situation; terms include: limit of capital ships, US pledge not to fortify Pacific bases, Nine Power Treaty, Four Power Treaty
Nine Power Treaty
pledged all countries involved to uphold Open Door policy
Four Power Treaty
new Pacific security pact among US, ENG, JAP, FRA; replaced old Anglo-Japanese alliance
Japan attacks Manchuria
Japan's actions in 1931 violated the Nine Power Treaty and Kellogg Briand Pact
Henry Stimson
secretary of state issued notes vowing the US would not recognize Japanese seizure of Manchuria
Japan renames Manchuria
American foreign policy
reflected disillusionment with world power after WWI; avoided taking steps to preserve world power
US foreign policy retreats in 1930s
depression, danger of war
why US adopted isolationism
Germany, Italy, Japan
3 powerful and discontented nations on the rise; later formed Axis powers
Adolf Hitler
totalitarian dictator in Germany; headed Nazi movement; asserted Aryan supremacy over Jews
Benito Mussolini
dictator came to power in Italy; invaded Ethiopia
Haile Selassie
Ethiopian emperor asked League of Nations for support; League fails to halt Mussolini's conquest
Japanese militarists
dominated government in Tokyo; invaded China, marking beginning of Pacific phase of WWII
anti-Comintern pact
3 totalitarian nations signed pact directed against communism and Soviet Union; completed a Berlin-Rome-Tokyo axis
danger of war
led to rising American desire for peace and noninvolvement
college campuses
pacifism swept American youth; formed antiwar groups; held demonstrations
Gerald Nye
senator of N. Dakota led headed special Senate committee investigating American munition dealers
merchants of death
munitions industry became scapegoat of post-WWI pacifism movement
Nye Committee
revealed enormous profits firms like Du Pont reaped from WWI; report led to neutrality legislation
neutrality acts
1) 1935 law banned sale of arms to nations at war; warned Americans not to sail on belligerent ships 2) 1936 ban on loans 3) 1937 made prohibitions permanent; required all trade other than munitions on a cash-and-carry basis
FDR's role in neutrality acts
passive role; approved but had reservations; signed as compromise for his New Deal; limit nation's retreat into isolationism
Louis Ludlow
congressman proposed nationwide referendum before Congress could declare war; blocked by FDR
Hitler demanded German-populated province of Czechoslovakia
Hitler invades Czechoslovakia
prompted neutrality revision to repeal arms embargo and place all trade with belligerents on cash-carry basis
neutrality revision
resisted by isolationists b/c it favored FRA and ENG; rejected in House and Senate
William Borah
senator led fight against League of Nations; resisted US involvement in WWII
Poland's invasion
Hitler begins WWII; ENG and FRA declare war 2 days later
Nazi-Soviet Pact
RUS signed nonaggression treaty with Hitler, enabling GER to avoid a 2-front war
US during outbreak of war
FDR proclaims neutrality
2 years
how long US remained in peace while WWII raged
revised neutrality policy
passed in 1939 following WWII; allowed for belligerents to purchase war supplies in US but have to pay cash and transport with own ships
GER lightning war on western front; quick victories threaten American public
destroyer-for-bases deal
FDR responded by invoking policy of all-out aid to Allies, short of war; transferred warships in exchange for rights to build air/naval bases on ENG possessions
America First Committee
foremost non-interventionist pressure group against the American entry into WWII; formed by FDR's opponents in Midwest: Charles Lindbergh, Robert Taft, Norman Thomas, Robert Hutchins
Fortress America
denied Hitler threat; view held that US was strong enough to defend itself
Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies
known as White Committee under William Allen White; organization advocated unlimited assistance to ENG short of war; opposed isolationists; supported FDR's policies: Anglophiles, New Dealers, liberal Republicans
whom most Americans sided with
peacetime draft
first in American history; FDR asked to build up the army
election of 1940
FDR ran for unprecedented third term and won; victory signified nation's support in departure from neutrality
Wendell Willkie
Republican nominee ran against FDR in 1840
FDR's program to lend and lease goods and weapons to countries fighting against aggressors; ensured ENG full access to US war supplies; denounced by isolationists
undeclared naval war
occurred after U-boat narrowly missed US destroyer, followed by GER sinking Kearney and Reuben James; FDR orders to shoot U-boats on sight and repeal "carry" section of neutrality laws
Chiang Kai-shek
Japanese unable to defeat his forces in China; retreated
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
Japan set out to incorporate East Indies and Indochina into its dominion
economic sanctions
used by US to defend Southeast Asia against JAP; set up licensing and quota system for gas and scrap metal
Tripartite Pact
defensive treaty among GER, ITA, JAP confronting US with a 2-ocean war
JAP invades Indochina
began chain of events led to war; tried to negotiate but fail; all JAP assets in US frozen and implemented permanent embargo
Hideki Tojo
army militant became new premier of JAP
Hull's note
10-point reply to Tokyo's proposals and included demand for JAP withdrawal of China
Pearl Harbor
Dec. 7, 1941 JAP planes bomb US fleet in Pacific; prompted US to declare war
revenge for Pearl Harbor, defeat Axis threat
why US entered WWII
Erwin Rommel
GER general led Afrika Korps in N. Africa; threaten Suez Canal
Douglas MacArthur
US general unable to block JAP conquest of Philippines; "I shall return"
Bataan Death March
JAP marched Filipino and American prisoners 65 miles to concentration camp
US/ENG wartime partnership
formed Combined Chiefs of Staff which directed Anglo-American military operations
Declaration of United Nations
FDR, Churchill, and 26 other nations pledge to fight together against Axis powers
strains in United Nations
focus on GER rather than JAP displeased Chinese; FDR ignored FRA/Gaulle govt. in exile; sour relations with Soviet Union
strains in US/RUS relations
Russian refusal to pay prerevolutionary debts, Soviet support of communism in US, Russian purge trials, temporary Nazi-Soviet alliance
Casablanca, Morocco
FDR and Churchill declared a policy of unconditional surrender against Axis
El Alamein
ENG launch attack against Rommel forcing Afrika Korps to retreat to Tunisia
Kasserine Pass
first encounter; inexperienced US troops suffer humiliating defeat against Rommel
George Patton
rallied US soldiers, driving GER from Africa by 1943
Soviet Red Army broke GER military power
invasion of Sicily
ITA dropped out of war; Mussolini fled
island hopping
US Pacific strategy of capturing some JAP-held islands and going around others finally coming together for final invasion; two operations: 1) Australia, New Guinea, Philippines - MacArthur 2) Hawaii, Central Pacific - Nimitz
Coral Sea
US naval forces block JAP thrust to outflank Australia
turning point; first defeat of modern JAP navy; left US in control of Central Pacific
WWI on home front
greater impact on American life than Great Depression; social and economic changes; American industry meet wartime demands; increased production; new jobs in wartime industries; women move into workforce; rural move to urban cities; northerners move South and West; economic recovery and return to prosperity
American industry
made single most important contribution to victory
Willow Run
Ford built giant factory to produce B-24 bombers
Henry Kaiser
Calif. industrialist met demand for cargo vessels and landing craft
War Production Board
allowed business to claim rapid depreciation, huge tax credits, awarded lucrative cost-plus contracts for needed goods
Donald Nelson
head of WPB
allocation system
due to shortages of critical materials; based on military priorities
gasoline rationing
in 1943 to curb pleasure driving and prolong tire life
Office of Price Administration
tried to curb inflation by controlling prices and rationing scarce goods
Office of Economic Stabilization
settled disputes between agencies
James Byrnes
head of OES
borrowing, revenues
financed the cost of war
result of wartime economic explosion; workers and farmers benefit
men left home to war; families move in jobs; rural lost population; coastal regions grew
greatest gains in population due to WWII movement
movement -> social problems
short supply of housing; overcrowding; family life suffered; increase in marriages and divorce; baby boom; teacher shortage; education crisis
demand for workers led to rise in women employment; mostly married and middle aged; entered previously-male industries; contribute to war effort
African American
shared in wartime movement; social and economic gains limited by prejudice
African American -> soldiers
served in segregated army units; used for service and construction tasks; denied chance to be officers
A. Philip Randolph
black labor leader threatened march on Washington to force FDR to end racial discrimination in defense industries, government employment, and armed forces
Fair Employment Practices Committee
FDR's executive order in response to Randolph's march; banned racial discrimination in war industries; resulted in rise in black employment; but weak in funding and staff
African American -> movement
strain national black/white relations; limited housing and facilities led to urban race riots
Fiorello LaGuardia
NY mayor intervened in Harlem riot
Mexican Americans
segregated in armed forces like blacks; low wages; union resistance; substantially improved economic conditions
88th Division
aka "Blue Devils" Mexican Americans in Italian campaign
zoot suit
riots in LA where white sailors attacked Mex-American youths in their outfits
American G.I. Forum
returning Mex-American veterans formed organization to press for equal rights
forced relocation of 120,000 Jap-Americans in West Coast to concentration camps
native-born Americans of Japanese ancestry
442nd Combat Team
all-Nisei army unit served gallantly in Europe; "Call in the Japs"
win-the-war politics
FDR strengthened position and Democratic political dominance as a result of wartime prosperity
Henry Wallace
FDR's liberal and visionary VP dropped in 1944 in favor of moderate Harry Truman
Political Action Committee
conducted massive door-to-door drives to register millions of workers and families
Sidney Hillman
head of PAC
Harry Truman
1944 Democrat VP nominee
Thomas Dewey
1944 Republican presidential candidate; moderate; attack FDR's health and Democrat stance on communism; bipartisan approach on foreign policy
June 6, 1944 Eisenhower planned assault on Normandy peninsula; began second-front war
Omar Bradley
decimated enemy w/ massive artillery and aerial bombardment at Saint-Lo
Battle of the Bulge
Hitler delayed Eisenhower's advance into GER; but fatally weakened GER resistance in west
May 7, 1945
Eisenhower accepted unconditional surrender of all German forces; Allied forces brought the war in Europe to successful conclusion
Soviet contribution/goal
fought the harsh one-front war; to maximize territorial gains by imposing communist regimes on eastern Europe
US contribution/goal
decisive Normandy invasion; to establish a new attempt at collective security
Big Three
US/FDR, ENG/Churchill, RUS/Stalin
Yalta Conference
Big Three met to discuss post-war action; terms: Declaration of Liberated Europe, Stalin entered Pacific war after GER's surrender, RUS control over Manchuria
Declaration of Liberated Europe
called for free elections; gave European people opportunity to choose which form of government they wish to have
Leyte Gulf
largest naval battle in history; Pacific battle fought for control of the Philippines; ended any further JAP naval threat
Japan's defeat
3 plans: 1) Kyushi, Honshu, Tokyo assault 2) peace negotiations 3) Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
US spent $2 billion to develop atomic bomb
Los Alamos
scientists successfully tested first atomic bomb
US dropped first atomic bomb
US dropped second atomic bomb
August 14, 1945
Japan surrendered
atomic bomb
led to postwar arms race with Soviet Union
WWII -> impact
nation's military potential reached; strongest country on earth; global career; new world role; industrial recovery and prosperity; big govt. and huge deficits; baby boom; Sunbelt growth; global concerns and domestic upheaval