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Kellogg Briand Pact

treaty outlawing war; signed by US, FRA, and 12 other nations in Paris

United States

emerged as richest nation in the world after WWI, displacing England

$10 billion

money Allied owed to the US

Hawley Smoot Tariff

1930 raised tariff to its highest rate; frustrated Euro nations unable to meet American financial obligations

crash of 1929

halted flow of US dollars across Atlantic; led to default on debt payments and bitterness

League of Nations

US unwilling to compromise American freedom of action and thus refused to join this international collective security

Soviet Union

govt. was ignored by US in 1920s; still conducted trade


came to power during the Russian Revolution


opened diplomatic relations between US and Russia in 1933

Latin America

where US took a more active foreign policy in 1920s; pursued political dominance and economic advantage

Haiti, Dominican Republic, Nicaragua

US marines were withdrawn from these places during Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover

Clark Memorandum

policy statement repudiating the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine; US had no right to intervene

Good Neighbor policy

FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations w/ Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force; nonintervention; trade w/ Latin America increased as a result

Cordell Hull

secretary of state signed a conditional pledge of nonintervention at Pan-American Conference 1933

US vs. Japan

naval rivals in the Pacific


wanted dominion over Asia; controlled Korea, Manchuria; wanted China

Washington Disarmament Conference

delegates from US, JAP, ENG met for political settlement of tense Asian situation; terms include: limit of capital ships, US pledge not to fortify Pacific bases, Nine Power Treaty, Four Power Treaty

Nine Power Treaty

pledged all countries involved to uphold Open Door policy

Four Power Treaty

new Pacific security pact among US, ENG, JAP, FRA; replaced old Anglo-Japanese alliance

Japan attacks Manchuria

Japan's actions in 1931 violated the Nine Power Treaty and Kellogg Briand Pact

Henry Stimson

secretary of state issued notes vowing the US would not recognize Japanese seizure of Manchuria


Japan renames Manchuria

American foreign policy

reflected disillusionment with world power after WWI; avoided taking steps to preserve world power


US foreign policy retreats in 1930s

depression, danger of war

why US adopted isolationism

Germany, Italy, Japan

3 powerful and discontented nations on the rise; later formed Axis powers

Adolf Hitler

totalitarian dictator in Germany; headed Nazi movement; asserted Aryan supremacy over Jews

Benito Mussolini

dictator came to power in Italy; invaded Ethiopia

Haile Selassie

Ethiopian emperor asked League of Nations for support; League fails to halt Mussolini's conquest

Japanese militarists

dominated government in Tokyo; invaded China, marking beginning of Pacific phase of WWII

anti-Comintern pact

3 totalitarian nations signed pact directed against communism and Soviet Union; completed a Berlin-Rome-Tokyo axis

danger of war

led to rising American desire for peace and noninvolvement

college campuses

pacifism swept American youth; formed antiwar groups; held demonstrations

Gerald Nye

senator of N. Dakota led headed special Senate committee investigating American munition dealers

merchants of death

munitions industry became scapegoat of post-WWI pacifism movement

Nye Committee

revealed enormous profits firms like Du Pont reaped from WWI; report led to neutrality legislation

neutrality acts

1) 1935 law banned sale of arms to nations at war; warned Americans not to sail on belligerent ships 2) 1936 ban on loans 3) 1937 made prohibitions permanent; required all trade other than munitions on a cash-and-carry basis

FDR's role in neutrality acts

passive role; approved but had reservations; signed as compromise for his New Deal; limit nation's retreat into isolationism

Louis Ludlow

congressman proposed nationwide referendum before Congress could declare war; blocked by FDR


Hitler demanded German-populated province of Czechoslovakia

Hitler invades Czechoslovakia

prompted neutrality revision to repeal arms embargo and place all trade with belligerents on cash-carry basis

neutrality revision

resisted by isolationists b/c it favored FRA and ENG; rejected in House and Senate

William Borah

senator led fight against League of Nations; resisted US involvement in WWII

Poland's invasion

Hitler begins WWII; ENG and FRA declare war 2 days later

Nazi-Soviet Pact

RUS signed nonaggression treaty with Hitler, enabling GER to avoid a 2-front war

US during outbreak of war

FDR proclaims neutrality

2 years

how long US remained in peace while WWII raged

revised neutrality policy

passed in 1939 following WWII; allowed for belligerents to purchase war supplies in US but have to pay cash and transport with own ships


GER lightning war on western front; quick victories threaten American public

destroyer-for-bases deal

FDR responded by invoking policy of all-out aid to Allies, short of war; transferred warships in exchange for rights to build air/naval bases on ENG possessions

America First Committee

foremost non-interventionist pressure group against the American entry into WWII; formed by FDR's opponents in Midwest: Charles Lindbergh, Robert Taft, Norman Thomas, Robert Hutchins

Fortress America

denied Hitler threat; view held that US was strong enough to defend itself

Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies

known as White Committee under William Allen White; organization advocated unlimited assistance to ENG short of war; opposed isolationists; supported FDR's policies: Anglophiles, New Dealers, liberal Republicans


whom most Americans sided with

peacetime draft

first in American history; FDR asked to build up the army

election of 1940

FDR ran for unprecedented third term and won; victory signified nation's support in departure from neutrality

Wendell Willkie

Republican nominee ran against FDR in 1840


FDR's program to lend and lease goods and weapons to countries fighting against aggressors; ensured ENG full access to US war supplies; denounced by isolationists

undeclared naval war

occurred after U-boat narrowly missed US destroyer, followed by GER sinking Kearney and Reuben James; FDR orders to shoot U-boats on sight and repeal "carry" section of neutrality laws

Chiang Kai-shek

Japanese unable to defeat his forces in China; retreated

Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

Japan set out to incorporate East Indies and Indochina into its dominion

economic sanctions

used by US to defend Southeast Asia against JAP; set up licensing and quota system for gas and scrap metal

Tripartite Pact

defensive treaty among GER, ITA, JAP confronting US with a 2-ocean war

JAP invades Indochina

began chain of events led to war; tried to negotiate but fail; all JAP assets in US frozen and implemented permanent embargo

Hideki Tojo

army militant became new premier of JAP

Hull's note

10-point reply to Tokyo's proposals and included demand for JAP withdrawal of China

Pearl Harbor

Dec. 7, 1941 JAP planes bomb US fleet in Pacific; prompted US to declare war

revenge for Pearl Harbor, defeat Axis threat

why US entered WWII

Erwin Rommel

GER general led Afrika Korps in N. Africa; threaten Suez Canal

Douglas MacArthur

US general unable to block JAP conquest of Philippines; "I shall return"

Bataan Death March

JAP marched Filipino and American prisoners 65 miles to concentration camp

US/ENG wartime partnership

formed Combined Chiefs of Staff which directed Anglo-American military operations

Declaration of United Nations

FDR, Churchill, and 26 other nations pledge to fight together against Axis powers

strains in United Nations

focus on GER rather than JAP displeased Chinese; FDR ignored FRA/Gaulle govt. in exile; sour relations with Soviet Union

strains in US/RUS relations

Russian refusal to pay prerevolutionary debts, Soviet support of communism in US, Russian purge trials, temporary Nazi-Soviet alliance

Casablanca, Morocco

FDR and Churchill declared a policy of unconditional surrender against Axis

El Alamein

ENG launch attack against Rommel forcing Afrika Korps to retreat to Tunisia

Kasserine Pass

first encounter; inexperienced US troops suffer humiliating defeat against Rommel

George Patton

rallied US soldiers, driving GER from Africa by 1943


Soviet Red Army broke GER military power

invasion of Sicily

ITA dropped out of war; Mussolini fled

island hopping

US Pacific strategy of capturing some JAP-held islands and going around others finally coming together for final invasion; two operations: 1) Australia, New Guinea, Philippines - MacArthur 2) Hawaii, Central Pacific - Nimitz

Coral Sea

US naval forces block JAP thrust to outflank Australia


turning point; first defeat of modern JAP navy; left US in control of Central Pacific

WWI on home front

greater impact on American life than Great Depression; social and economic changes; American industry meet wartime demands; increased production; new jobs in wartime industries; women move into workforce; rural move to urban cities; northerners move South and West; economic recovery and return to prosperity

American industry

made single most important contribution to victory

Willow Run

Ford built giant factory to produce B-24 bombers

Henry Kaiser

Calif. industrialist met demand for cargo vessels and landing craft

War Production Board

allowed business to claim rapid depreciation, huge tax credits, awarded lucrative cost-plus contracts for needed goods

Donald Nelson

head of WPB

allocation system

due to shortages of critical materials; based on military priorities

gasoline rationing

in 1943 to curb pleasure driving and prolong tire life

Office of Price Administration

tried to curb inflation by controlling prices and rationing scarce goods

Office of Economic Stabilization

settled disputes between agencies

James Byrnes

head of OES

borrowing, revenues

financed the cost of war


result of wartime economic explosion; workers and farmers benefit


men left home to war; families move in jobs; rural lost population; coastal regions grew


greatest gains in population due to WWII movement

movement -> social problems

short supply of housing; overcrowding; family life suffered; increase in marriages and divorce; baby boom; teacher shortage; education crisis


demand for workers led to rise in women employment; mostly married and middle aged; entered previously-male industries; contribute to war effort

African American

shared in wartime movement; social and economic gains limited by prejudice

African American -> soldiers

served in segregated army units; used for service and construction tasks; denied chance to be officers

A. Philip Randolph

black labor leader threatened march on Washington to force FDR to end racial discrimination in defense industries, government employment, and armed forces

Fair Employment Practices Committee

FDR's executive order in response to Randolph's march; banned racial discrimination in war industries; resulted in rise in black employment; but weak in funding and staff

African American -> movement

strain national black/white relations; limited housing and facilities led to urban race riots

Fiorello LaGuardia

NY mayor intervened in Harlem riot

Mexican Americans

segregated in armed forces like blacks; low wages; union resistance; substantially improved economic conditions

88th Division

aka "Blue Devils" Mexican Americans in Italian campaign

zoot suit

riots in LA where white sailors attacked Mex-American youths in their outfits

American G.I. Forum

returning Mex-American veterans formed organization to press for equal rights


forced relocation of 120,000 Jap-Americans in West Coast to concentration camps


native-born Americans of Japanese ancestry

442nd Combat Team

all-Nisei army unit served gallantly in Europe; "Call in the Japs"

win-the-war politics

FDR strengthened position and Democratic political dominance as a result of wartime prosperity

Henry Wallace

FDR's liberal and visionary VP dropped in 1944 in favor of moderate Harry Truman

Political Action Committee

conducted massive door-to-door drives to register millions of workers and families

Sidney Hillman

head of PAC

Harry Truman

1944 Democrat VP nominee

Thomas Dewey

1944 Republican presidential candidate; moderate; attack FDR's health and Democrat stance on communism; bipartisan approach on foreign policy


June 6, 1944 Eisenhower planned assault on Normandy peninsula; began second-front war

Omar Bradley

decimated enemy w/ massive artillery and aerial bombardment at Saint-Lo

Battle of the Bulge

Hitler delayed Eisenhower's advance into GER; but fatally weakened GER resistance in west

May 7, 1945

Eisenhower accepted unconditional surrender of all German forces; Allied forces brought the war in Europe to successful conclusion

Soviet contribution/goal

fought the harsh one-front war; to maximize territorial gains by imposing communist regimes on eastern Europe

US contribution/goal

decisive Normandy invasion; to establish a new attempt at collective security

Big Three

US/FDR, ENG/Churchill, RUS/Stalin

Yalta Conference

Big Three met to discuss post-war action; terms: Declaration of Liberated Europe, Stalin entered Pacific war after GER's surrender, RUS control over Manchuria

Declaration of Liberated Europe

called for free elections; gave European people opportunity to choose which form of government they wish to have

Leyte Gulf

largest naval battle in history; Pacific battle fought for control of the Philippines; ended any further JAP naval threat

Japan's defeat

3 plans: 1) Kyushi, Honshu, Tokyo assault 2) peace negotiations 3) Manhattan Project

Manhattan Project

US spent $2 billion to develop atomic bomb

Los Alamos

scientists successfully tested first atomic bomb


US dropped first atomic bomb


US dropped second atomic bomb

August 14, 1945

Japan surrendered

atomic bomb

led to postwar arms race with Soviet Union

WWII -> impact

nation's military potential reached; strongest country on earth; global career; new world role; industrial recovery and prosperity; big govt. and huge deficits; baby boom; Sunbelt growth; global concerns and domestic upheaval

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