BWS was one of the first syndromes to be raised as a defense
enhancement in American courtrooms. Many others have since followed. Among them are
these48: adopted child syndrome, false memory syndrome, premenstrual syndrome (PMS),
holocaust survival syndrome (see, for example, Werner v. State49), attention deficit disorder
(raised in defense of Michael Fay, the teenager "caned" in Singapore in 1994), black rage
defense (created by William Kunstler and offered in defense of Colin Ferguson, the Long
Island Rail Road shooter), elder abuse syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome (a variation of
which was used in defense of Eric Smith, the 14-year-old who sodomized and killed a fouryear-
old neighborhood boy), Gulf War syndrome, Munchausen by proxy syndrome (wherein
a caregiver injures his or her children to gain attention), nicotine withdrawal syndrome,
repressed memory syndrome (used by California prosecutors to convict George Franklin, Sr.,
of the rape-murder of his eight-year-old daughter's friend 20 years after the killing), rotten
social background syndrome, parental abuse syndrome (employed by Erik and Lyle
Menendez), post-traumatic stress disorder, rape trauma syndrome (see, for example, State v.
Marks50), ritual abuse syndrome (abuse at the hands of Satanic and other cults), UFO
survivor syndrome, urban survival syndrome (used to defend Texas killer
Daimian Osby), and Vietnam syndrome (see, for example, State v. Kenneth J.
Sharp, Jr.51). One especially recent syndrome to be discussed in the medical
literature is Internet addiction disorder (IAD). Specialists studying this
disorder say that IAD is as real as alcoholism. People with IAD tend to lose
control over their daily activities and crave the use of the Internet. They even
have withdrawal symptoms when forced to forgo access to the Internet for an
extended period of time.