A species that is not native to an area and may cause particular harm to that ecosystem.
An organism that is detrimental to human agricultural purposes such as farming or livestock production.
An insect species within the order Hemiptera. Characterized by having mouthpieces adapted for piercing plant parts, such as leaves, and sucking nutrients from them.
An interaction involving species of three different trophic levels, such as a primary producer (e.g., plant), primary consumer (e.g., herbivore), and secondary consumer (e.g., predator of the herbivore).
A specialized, tube-like structure through which an organism such as a wasp deposits eggs on or within a substrate.
An interaction between species or organisms in which one member benefits and the other is harmed by the interaction.
An insect that spends its larval stages as a parasite within its host, eventually killing or sterilizing the host.