IB HL Biology WFS Midterm 2011-2012 Review
Topics: Statistical Analysis - 1 Cells - 2.1-2.5 Biochemistry/DNA/Protein/Energy and Metabolism - 3.1-3.8, 7.5-7.6, 8.1-8.2 Genetics - 4.1-4.4, 10.1-10.3 Ecology and Evolution - 5.1-5.5, D.1-D.5 Plant Science (Structure/Function) - 9.1-9.3
Terms in this set (429)
Threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the packaged DNA that is passed from one generation of cells to the next.
Sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
Cell division that produces four genetically different reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms.
A pair of chromosomes, one from each parent, which code for the same genes at the same locuses, but have different alleles.
Mental retardation associated with an extra copy of chromosome 21.
The appearance of the chromosomal makeup of a somatic cell in an individual or species (including the number and arrangement and size and structure of the chromosomes)
The symbolic representation a pair of alleles possessed by an organism, typically represented by two letters
The charachteristics or traits of an organism.
An allele that has the same effect on the phenotype whether it is paired with the same allele or a different one. An allele which is always expressed in the phenotype.
An allele that has an effect on the phenotype on the phenotype only when present in the homozygous state.
Pairs of alleles that both affect the phenotype when present in a heterozygote.
The particular position on homologous chromosomes of a gene. Each gene is found on a specific place on a specific pair of chromosomes.
Having two identical alleles of a gene.
Having two different alleles of a gene.
An individual who has a recessive allele of a gene that does not have an affect on their phenotype.
Testing a suspected heterozygote plant or animal by crossing it with a known homozygous recessive.
A diagram that predicts the outcome of a genetic cross by considering all of the possible combinations of gametes in the cross.
A mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes.
An association between genes in sex chromosomes that makes some characteristics appear more frequently in one sex than in the other.
A diagram which shows the inheritance of a characteristic over several generations.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
A technique for amplifying DNA in vitro by incubating with special primers, DNA polymerase molecules, and nucleotides.
Procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel
The analysis of DNA fragments to see who they come from; compares genetic markers from noncoding regions that show variation between individuals (involves amplication for analysis)
Human Genome Project
An international study of the entire human genetic material
A procedure that replaces abnormal genetic material (DNA or RNA) with normal genetic material by the insertion of one organism's genetic information into another organism.
The interchange of sections between pairing homologous chromosomes during the prophase of meiosis.
The random position of each pair of chromosomes in the nucleus when the spindle microtubules become attached.
Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment
States that, when gametes are formed, the separation of one pair of alleles between daughter cells is independent of the separation of another pair of alleles.
2 X 2 = 4 Possible Offspring
4 X 4 = 16 Possible Offspring
Chromosomes that do not determine the sex of an individual.
One of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in the human, contains genes that will determine the sex of the individual.
Any pair of genes that tend to be transmitted together due to their location on the same chromosome.
When multiple sets of genes act together to produce a specific trait.
Variation measured on a continuum rather than in discrete units or categories (eg height in human beings).
Variation in phenotypes that fall into two or more distinct, nonoverlapping categories.
the passive movement of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane from a region of lower solute concentration to a region of higher solute concentration
the passive movement of particles from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
unable to diffuse through membrane
requires energy, against concentration gradient, occur in presence of ATP
attraction through hydrophobic and hydrophilic opposite charges creates some ............ in the bilayer
........... can increase this stability
charged and large molecules
phospholipids protects against movement of ...................
plasma membrane creates a .......... between internal and external 'water' environments of the cell
hormone binding sites
act on cells that have the appropriate protein receptor on the outside of the membrane. Once bound a signal is transmitted into the cell
.................. catalyse reactions. active site either on the inner or outer membrane surface
arranged in chains in the membrane so that the electrons can pass from one carrier to the another
.................. allow polar molecules to enter via passive transport. Each channel allows one specific substance to pass through
use ATP to actively transport specific substances across membrane, this controls movement in cells - binding site, some particles cannot bind
transportation possible for substances that are unable to pass through the phospholipid bilayer because they may be too large or polar (charged) molecules.
................. are necessary so that binding sites are created during faciliated diffusion
possible for small, non-polar molecules to easily diffuse across the membrane without additional assistance, move between phospholipids, e.g. water, urea
............ are membranous sacs that transports substances both within and out of the cell
.................. is possible b/c of fluidity of membrane, small amounts can be removed or added without tearing membrane
vesicle transport 1: ............ synthesised by ribosomes and enter rER
vesicle transport 2: .................... packages proteins into vesicles and sends to golgi apparatus
vesicle transport 3: .................... modifies proteins and packages into a secratory vesicle and sends to plasme membrane
vesicle transport 4: ............ fuse with plasma membrane, the contents is expelled and then vesicle becomes a part of membrane
endocytosis and exocytosis both require ...........
.................. is the process of vesicle transport
................. is a process where cell takes up substances that are too large or polar cant enter ay other way, requires recognition by a membrane receptor protein
.............. of membrane (always changes shape) allows for endocytosis and exocytosis
organic compounds, oxides of carbon
.................: based on carbon and found in living things - exceptions: hydrogen carbonates, carbonates, ............ .... .............
all compunds that contain no carbon
C, H, O make up .............
monosacchorides: galactose, glucose, ...........
monosaccharides: fructose, glucose, ...........
monosacchorides: fructose, galactose, ...........
disaccharides: sucrose, lactose, .................
disaccharides: maltose, lactose, .................
disaccharides: maltose, sucrose, .............
polysaccharides: starch, glycogen, ...............
polysaccharides: cellulose, glycogen, ............
polysaccharides: cellulose, starch, ..............
cellulose, starch, glycogen
maltose, sucrose, lactose
fructose, galactose, glucose
......... form building blocks for di. and poly.
mono. animal: ............, source of ............
di. animal: ............, source of energy found in ........ of mammals
glycogen, insoluble, liver
poly. animal: ................, .................. storage, short term energy store in .......... and muscles
fructose, fruit, seeds
mono. plant: ............., source of plant, makes ........... sweet-tasting, animals disperse ........... in the fruit
sucrose, transport, phloem
di. plant: ..............., used to .......... and store energy, carried by ...........
cellulose, insoluble, cell walls
poly. plant: ..............., ............ strong structural fibre of plant .......... ............
removing water - 2 monomers to form a dimer
adding water - breaks dimers back into 2 monomers
glycerol, 3 fatty acids
lipids are made by condensation reactions between trigleceride + 3 water and ............ + ....... .......... ............
............ are made by condensation reactions between disaccharide + water and 2 .................
........... are long chains of amino acids
dipeptide, 2 amino acids
proteins are made of condensation reactions between ................... + water and ........ .......... .............
lipids are ......... and therefore dont interfere with .........
metabolic pathways, complex, slower
lipids have ........... ............ to build up and breakdown more ..........., therefore ........ than carbs
carbs easily built up for ..........
carbs easily breakdown to to release .......... more ...........
soluble, easier, storage
carbs are ............ in water so are ........... to transport to and from ...........
C5 H10 O5
C6 H12 O6
compounds which are based on carbon and are found in living things
exceptions to organic compounds definition
oxides of carbon (eg carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide)
all molecules except organic compounds and its exceptions
C5H10O5 (5 Carbons)
2 carbons, 1 oxygen, 3 Hydrogen, 1 nitrogen, 1 OH and 1 R group
fatty acids (general structure)
(CH3) ==> (CH2)n ==> C = O and C - OH
A source of energy which is a monosaccharide in animals (6 Carbons)
A source of energy, found in milk (the sugar) which is a disaccharide in animals
An insoluble storage polymer of glucose, short term energy store which is a polysaccharide in animals
A source of energy which makes fruits sweet which is a monosaccharide in plants
Used to transport, store energy, carried by phloem which is disaccharide of a plant
An insoluble, structural fiber of plant cell walls which is a polysaccharide of a plant
Removing of water, two monomers to form a dimer
Adding of water, which breaks the dimers back into monomers (water splitting)
....... are made by condensation reactions between glycerol and 3 fatty acids
........ are long chains of amino acids
Lipid function: ........ in the form of fat in humans and oils in plants
Lipid function: ...........A layer of fat under the skin reduces heat loss
Lipid function: ........... lipids are less dense than water so it helps animals to float
Lipid Function: ........... main component of ............ are phospholipids
...... contain more energy per gram, so stores of ......... are lighter
........... are insoluble so don't cause problems with osmosis
....... more easily digested and energy can be released more rapidly
..... soluble in water, so are easier transported to and from storage
Saturated double bonds, unsaturated single bonds
the fatty acid chains are ..... and hydrophillic
proteins are ........ chains with a central C atom and four side groups
cells in MULTICELLULAR organism develop in different ways and can therefore carry out different functions
cells that have the capacity to self-renew by cell division and to differentiate
example of stem cells
human embryos (as an example of something)
contains membrane bound organelles
has no membrane bound organelles within
discrete structures within a cell & each has a specific function
two types of stem cells
embryonic stem cells
PLURIPOTENT and may become anything
adult stem cells
MULTIPOTENT that can differentiate to only a limited range of cell types
Electron and Light
(size of image)/(size of specimen)
-are prokaryotic cells
-have circular, naked DNA
-found in nucleoid region
3 types of eukaryotic cells
plant, fungi, animal
-all cells came from pre existing cells
-cells are the basic unit of life
-all living organisms are made up of cells
functions of life
-response to stimuli
arise from the interaction of component parts; the whole is greater than the SUM OF ITS PARTS
how do cells in multicellular organisms differentiate?
they express only some of their genes but not others
what are 2 properties of stem cells
-capacity to divide
-ability to differentiate along different pathways
outline one therapeutic use of stem cells
embryonic stem cells usage kills early-stage embryos, but helps in therapeutic cloning helps to end the suffering of patients with a wide variety of conditions
cell wall- maintains cell's shape and prevent excessive water uptake
extracellular matrix - made of glycoproteins; functions in support, adhesion, and movement
line added to a micrograph or a drawing to help to show the actual size of the structures
Monosaccharides in the form C6H12O6
Molecules from which proteins are made of
Group of atoms held together by chemical forces
Unsatured fatty acid
Disaccharide: Glucose + glucose
Helicase unwids hydrogen bonds in DNA so other bases will be nailed forming a copy of the DNA.
code containing the information in nucleic acids
Biocatalysts made of protein
Carbohydrates in the form of C5H10O5-ribose or C5H10O4-deoxyribose
Largest group of organic compounds.Contain only 3 elements:carbon,hydrogen and oxygen.
Breakage of one single molecule into two with the entrance of a water molecule
Formed by association of very many monosccharides linked by glycosidic linkages.
Water flows through very small places and capillaries
Disaccharide : Glucose+galactose
Water forms droplets on surfaces and runs off
Predominant Elements in Living Things
Carbon,hydrogen,oxygen and nitrogen
Information molecules of cells found throughout the living things formed by nucleotides chain
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, thymine and Uracil
Adenine and Guanine
Cytosine, thymine and Uracil
force by which molecules stick together
force by which individual molecules cling to surrounding material and surfaces
Purine chains connect to pyrimidine bases
Union of two monosaccharides where there is also water as a product
Carbohydrates made of two monosaccharides.Not source of energy.
Cellulose and Chitin
Polysaccharides produced by the cells and used in the metabolism with structural function
Lock and Key
Model of enzyme activity that explains how a particular enzyme will only fit with one particular type of substrate.
Formed by two molecules of fatty acids, phosphate and glycerol
Satured Fatty Acid
Starch & Glycogen
Polysaccharides formed by cells and used by metabolism with energetic function
Unequal distribution of electrical charge within it. (water molecule)
Represented by oils and fats, composed of 3 molecules of fatty + glycerol.
single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose
bond created by the weak attraction of a slightly positive hydrogen atom to a slightly negative portion of another molecule
decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain
each enzyme catalyzes only one kind of reaction
DNA double helix unwids hydrogen bonds and RNA polymerase transcribes the coding strand
Enzyme Active site
Site of the enzyme surface where substrate molecules binds
Structural change in a protein that alters its 3D shape and causes the loss of its biological properties
Double strand of polynucleotides in which the sugar is deoxyribose
Building blocks of DNA and RNA.Composed of phosphate, pentose and nitrogenous base
The change in shape of the active site of an enzyme so that it binds more snugly to the substrate, induced by entry of the substrate.
Are formed by amino acids.
Monosaccharide in the form of C6H12O6
Examples of Polysaccharides
Starch,glycogen and cellulose.
Example of Disaccharides
Sucrose, lactose and maltose
Example of Monosaccharides
glucose, fructose and galactose
Required by proteins.Is included in the amino acid structure.Contains enzymes essential for plant function.
The mineral that strengthens bone and teeth uses calcium. Also important in nerve synaptic transmission of nerve impulses and muscle contraction. Regulates the cell wall construction in plants.
Part of the phosphate groups in ATP and DNA molecules. In plants it is needed for cell reproduction and division. It is part of the cell membrane.
found in the structure of haemoglobin and essential for the production of red blood cells. It is involved in the light energy transferring compounds involved in photosynthesis in plants.
Major ion associated with the propagation of a nerve impulse. Can replace potassium in some plants.
It is a component of amino acids.
a single particle of a chemical element
An atom that either gains or loses an electron
Units Of information carried on the DNA
When a chromosome replicates to form two identical structures
Ball shaped proteins that DNA can wrap around.
Chromatids coiled up
DNA wrapped around histones
the life cycle of a cell which includes growth and division
When the cell is not going through mitosis and undergoing growth and replication
Consist of two chromatids.
Replicated chromosomes coiled up to save space
Found near the middle of a chromosomes of two identical sister chromatids
The phase that prepares the chromosomes. Nuclear membrane dissolves.
Spindle fibre from the centriole attach to the centromere of chromosomes and bring them to the equator .
Spindle fibre pulls the chromatids to opposite poles separating them.
After the replicated cell splits the nuclear membrane reforms.
After telophase there are two nucleus in the cell so the process of the cell splitting into two identical cell is called cytokinesis
Made from micro something. This is from the centriole
The result of uncontrolled cell division
3.3.1 Outline DNA nucleotide structure in terms of sugar (deoxyribose), base and phosphate.
Building block of DNA is called a nucleotide.
Each nucleotide is made of 3 parts:
A sugar called deoxyribose shown as a pentagon;
A phosphate group shown as a circle;
A base shown as a rectangle.
3.3.2 State the names of the four bases in DNA.
Adenine(A), Thymine(T), Cytosine(C), and Guanine(G)
3.3.3 Outline how DNA nucleotides are linked together by covalent bonds into a single strand.
Two DNA nucleotides can be linked together by a covalent bond between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate group of another nucleotide.
You can add more nucleotide in a similar way to form a strand of nucleotides.
3.3.4 Explain how a DNA double helix is formed using complementary base pairing and hydrogen bonds.
A DNA molecule consist of two strands of nucleotides wound together into a double helix.
H bonds link the two strands together.
These H bonds form between the bases of the two strands.
C is the complementary base of G and A is the complementary base of T.
It means that A only forms H bonds with T and C only form H bonds with G.
3.1.5 Draw and label a simple diagram of the molecular structure of DNA.
two polymers shown;
arranged in a double helix;
sugar shown connected to base;
sugar-phosphate backbone shown;
sugar identified as deoxyribose;
hydrogen bonding between bases shown;
diagram shows complementary base pairing:
A bonded to T, C with G;
covalent bonding between phosphate and sugar.
Describe the 1st level of protein structure
-just the sequence
-determined by DNA base sequence in genes
Describe the 2nd level of protein structure
-sequence plus any folding and interaction between anything but R groups
-hydrogen bonds - folding to protect non-polar regions
-alpha helix or beta-pleated sheet
Describe the tertiary protein structure
-folding and bonding between R groups
-covalent, hydrogen, and ionic bonds
-hydrophobic and hydrophillic interactions (not bonds)
Describe the quaternary protein structure
-two or more globular proteins
-otherwise, same as tertiary
Outline the difference between fibrous and globular proteins
-fibrous are long and skinny, while globular are 3D, a lump.
-fibrous are less soluble, globular are more
-fibrous are for support and strength, globular are for enzymes, antibodies, hormones, and transport pumps
What does a cell need in order to be a cell?
-needs a plasma membrane and cytoplasm
Give 2 examples of fibrous proteins
Give 2 (or more) examples of globular proteins
Catalase (breaks down H2O2)
State four functions of proteins, giving a named example of each
Gas transport (hemoglobin)
What is a polar molecule?
A molecule that is charged and is hydrophillic.
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen
What are the four most common elements in living organisms?
Sulfur, Calcium, Phosphorous, Iron, Sodium
What are the less common or "trace" elements in living organisms?
Polar Covalent Bond
The bond which holds together atoms in a single water molecule which results from an unequal sharing of electrons.
Thermal Properties of Water
Properties of water which deal with water's high specific heat, where water can absorb or give off a great deal of heat without greatly changing temperature, and high heat of vaporization where water absorbs a great deal of heat when it evaporates.
Cohesive Properties of Water
Properties of water which deal with similar molecules' attraction to each other, creating surface tension.
Solvent Properties of Water
Properties of water which state that water is a universal solvent of polar molecules, including carbs, proteins and nucleic acids, but not lipids because they are relatively non-polar.
A liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances.
The dissolved substance in a solution.
The simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugar molecules.
Carbohydrates that are made up of two monosaccharides.
Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides.
Glycerol and Fatty Acids
Subcomponents of lipid molecules.
Subcomponents of proteins or polypeptides.
Subcomponents of nucleic acids.
A monosaccharide molecule which acts as a chemical fuel for cell respiration.
A disaccharide molecule which makes up some of the sulutes in milk.
A polysaccharide which stores glucose in muscles and the liver.
A chemical reaction that breaks covalent bonds between monomers by adding a water molecule.
A chemical reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a water molecule.
Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine
Name the four nitrogenous bases which make up DNA nucleotides.
How many hydrogen bonds do adenine and thymine share?
How many hydrogen bonds do cytosine ang guanine share?
Process by which DNA is copied in a cell before a cell divides by mitosis, meiosis, or binary fission.
Long strands of DNA found in the eukaryotic cell nucleus; condense to form chromosomes
An enzyme that untwists the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and making them available as template strands for DNA replication.
An enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA at a replication fork by the addition of nucleotides to the existing chain.
Free Nucleotides (Nucleoside Triphosphates)
Nucleotides which are not yet bonded and are floating in the nucleoplasm of a cell.
The formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA.
Process by which mRNA transcribes sequences of DNA for protein synthesis at the ribosome.
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil; usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis.
Messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome.
An enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that separates the DNA strands during transcription and binds the RNA nucleotides to their base pairs along the DNA template.
A set of 3 bases in an mRNA molecule which determines the identity of one of the 20 amino acids.
Ribosomal RNA; type of RNA that makes up part of the ribosome.
Transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome
Temperature, pH, and Substrate Concentration
Name three factors which affect enzyme-catalysed reactions:
A metabolic process in which oxygen is used to release stored energy by breaking down glucose molecules.
A metabolic process which breaks down carbohydrates and sugars such as glucose through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and releases energy in the form of ATP; Glucose produces two molecules of pyruvate through this process.
Cellular respiration which does not require oxygen and which produces lactic acid.
The anaerobic process by which yeasts and other microorganisms break down sugars to form carbon dioxide and ethanol.
Lactic Acid Fermentation
The anaerobic process by which pyruvic acid uses NADH to form lactic acid; supplies energy when oxygen for aerobic respiration is scarce.
Aerobic Cell Respiration
The metabolic pathway that provides electrons for the electron transport system in the mitochondrial cristae, and form of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. Cells obtain most of their ATP this way.
Process by which plants use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and energy-storing carbohydrates such as sugars and starches.
Green pigments found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria that absorbs light energy; used to carry out photosynthesis.
Red end, Green middle, and Blue end
Name three regions of the visible light spectrum which affect the absorbtion of light energy from chlorophyll.
The initial phase of photosynthesis, taking place in photosystem II (680), in which light energy is converted into chemical energy, specifically ATP.
The second stage of photosynthesis, taking place in photosystem I (700), in which ATP and hydrogen are used as form of chemical energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into useful organic molecules.
Process by which a water molecule is split into its component elements, hydrogen and oxygen, in order to replace the lost electron in the reaction center of the photosystem.
The conversion of an inorganic form of an element to an organic form.
Increase in light intensity increases photosynthetic rate until the point at which the enzymes are working at their maximum rate, and the rate plateaus.
How does light intesity affect the rate at which photosynthesis occurs?
Increase in temperature increases photosynthetic rate until the point at which the enzymes or other proteins become denatured by the heat, then the photosynthetic rate decreases.
How does changing temperature affect the rate at which photosynthesis occurs?
Increase in CO2 concentration increases photosynthetis rate, then reaches a plateau unless light or temperature are also increased.
How does changing carbon dioxide concentration affect the rate at which photosynthesis occurs?
A chemical reaction in which a reactant loses one or more electrons.
A chemical reaction in which electrons are gained, either by the removal of oxygen, the addition of hydrogen, or the addition of electrons.
A metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds.
A metabolic pathway that consumes energy to synthesize a complex molecule from simpler compounds.
A part of the process of cellular respiration in which pyruvate is decarboxylated; oxidised by NAD to give acetate; combined with CoA --> acetyl CoA (no ATP produced)
A series of enzymatic reactions in mitochondria involving oxidative metabolism of acetyl compounds to produce high-energy phosphate compounds that are the source of cellular energy.
The production of ATP from ADP and Pi molecules using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain.
The Cytoplasm of the Cell
Where does glycolysis take place?
The Matrix of the Mitochondria
Where do the link reaction and the Kreb's cycle take place?
Electron Transport Chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons due to increasing electonegativity of the electron acceptors during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
A process for synthesizing ATP using the energy of an electrochemical gradient producing by the active pumping of hydrogen ions out of the cristae, and the enzyme ATP synthase.
Large protein which works like a machine and uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP.
Organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy; contains chlorophyll and other pigments.
Colored chemical compounds that absorb light.
An accessory pigment, either yellow or orange, in the chloroplasts of plants. By absorbing wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot, they broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis.
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy.
Complex of proteins associated with two special chlorophyll a molecules and a primary electron acceptor. Located centrally in a photosystem, this complex triggers the light reactions of photosynthesis. Excited by light energy, one of the chlorophylls donates an electron to the primary electron acceptor, which passes an electron to an electron transport chain.
Photophosphorylation which generates both ATP and NADPH and uses both Photosystem II and Photosystem I.
Reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars.
The synthesis of ATP during photosynthesis, coupled to the cyclic passage of electrons to and from P700, the specialized form of chlorophyll a which is involved in photosystem I, using a series of carrier molecules.
The controlled release of energy in the form of ATP from organic compounds in cells
The enzyme needed to catalyse the hydrolysis reaction of ATP breaking down into ADP and releasing 30.7kJ of energy
The process of adding a phosphate group to ADP (to synthesise ATP)
In cell respiration, glucose in the cytoplasm breaks down into pyruvate (three-carbon compound) with a small yield of ATP
Respiration without using oxygen
Pyruvate in the cytoplasm is either converted into lactate (in humans) or ethanol and carbon dioxide (in yeast), with no yield of ATP
Respiration using oxygen
Pyruvate in the mitochondria breaks down into carbon dioxide and water with a large yield of ATP.
Pyruvate breaks down into lactate (lactic acid) in humans - in anaerobic respiration
Pyruvate breaks down into alcohol and carbon dioxide in yeast - in anaerobic respiration
A group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring. Members of the same species have a common gene pool.
The environment in which a species normally lives or the location of a living organism.
A group of organisms of the same species which live in the same area at the same time.
A group of populations living and interacting with each other in an area.
A community and its abiotic environment. Similar to a habitat, but reffers to where a group of interacting populations live instead of a single species.
The study of relationships between living organisms and between organisms and their envirnoment.
Hydrosphere, Atmosphere, Lithosphere, Biosphere
Name the four components of an environment.
Living factors in an environment are:
Non-living factors in an environment are:
Organisms which produce their own food from inorganic matter, often used by other organisms; producers.
Organisms which are not capable of making their own food, and rely on other organisms as food sources; consumers.
Organisms which eat non-living organic matter such as dead leaves, feces, or carcasses.
Organisms which live on or in non-living organic matter, secreteing digestive enzymes into it and absorbing the products of digestion.
A sequence showing the feeding relationships and energy flow between species. Arrows reflect the direction of energy flow.
An interconnecting series of food chains.
An organisms position in a food chain.
A category of saprotrophs and detritivores which break down the body parts of dead animals.
Caused by the earth's atmosphere's ability to retain heat in the same way that a greenhouse does.
The number of new members of the species due to reproduction.
The number of deaths in a population.
The arrival of members from other places to a population.
The leaving of members in a population to a new population.
The maximum number of species which a particular habitat can support. (Represented by the letter K).
A process of selective breeding by which breeders create the most desireable offspring by breeding adults who posess the most desirable traits.
Homologous Anatomical Structures
Structures which are similar in form and function, but which are found in seemingly dissimilar species.
The system of naming organisms using two names, the first of which reflects the genus of the ogranism, and the second of which reflects the species.
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
List the order of organism classification.
A key used for the identification of organisms based on a series of choices between alternative characteristics.
Origin of Life
- Chemical reactions produce simple organic molecules (H2O, CO2, Ammonia)
- Assembling these molecules into polymers
- Formation of polymers that can self-replicate; this allows inheritance characteristics
- Development of membranes with internal chemistry different from exterior, including polymers that held genetic information
Origin of Organic Compounds
- (Miller & Urey) Organic compounds have been synthesized by chemical reactions in water or earth's surface
- Hydro-thermal vents which had unusual chemical conditions which might have caused spontaneous synthesis of organic compounds
- Extraterrestrial origin, delivered to earth via meteorites (Panspermia)
Role of RNA
- Significant role because: catalysis and self-replication
- RNA catalyses a broad range of chemical reactions, could have taken role of enzymes now
- RNA self-replicates, therefore 1 molecule can be the template for another through rules of complementary base pairing
A microscopic hollow sphere especially of a protein or synthetic polymer
The possible precursor to prokaryotes, to become cells they would have to develop a genetic mechanism to allow reproduction and transfer of characteristics to offspring
Theory that both mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved from individual prokaryotes which, through endocytosis ingested another prokaryote, which continued carry out its functions within and eventually for it's 'host' cell
Endosymbiotic Theory (details)
- They grow and divide like cells
- They have naked loop of DNA like prokaryotes
- They synthesize their own proteins using 70S ribosomes, like prokaryotes
- They have a double membrane, when cells are taken into vesicles through endocytosis
All the genes in an interbreeding population
The frequency of an allele as a proportion of all alleles in a gene population
Species (new definition)
A group of actually or potentially interbreeding populations, with a common gene pool, which are reproductively isolated from other such groups
Problems with Original Species Definition
- Many species found cannot interbreed but show no significant difference in appearance
- Some pairs of species clearly different characteristics yet can interbreed
- Some species reproduce asexually
- With fossils it's impossible to tell whether or not organisms use to interbreed
The formation of a new species
When members of species migrate to new area, interbreeding impossible because of geographical isolation
When two species live in the same geographical area but cannot interbreed for different reasons
Sympatric Speciation (examples)
- Hybrid infertility
Two species won't interbreed because certain behavior difference, for instance, mating call not the same
Different species can't interbreed because they reproduce at different times of the year
Physically difficult or impossible to reproduce, physically incompatible
Hybrid infertility (sympatric)
Offspring created cannot reproduce due to being polyploidy
The diversification of a group of organisms into forms filling different ecological niches
Evolving from the similar trait of an ancestor, to a different trait
Not having a common ancestor, but because of similar environmental factors, evolving a similarly trait
Gradualism (evolution rate)
Evolution is very slow but large changes can gradually occur over a large period of time
Punctuated Equilibrium (evolution rate)
Periods of stability with little evolution followed by sudden change, new adaptions would need to occur to deal with radically changed environment
A population in which there are two alleles of a gene in the gene pool
When one allele is gradually replacing another
ex: Black and white moth -> industrial pollution
When two alleles persist indefinitely in the gene pool of a population
Balanced Polymorphism (example)
Sickle Cell Disease:
- Individuals with HB^A HB^A do not develop sickle cell anemia but susceptible to malaria
- HB^S HB^S resistant to malaria but develop serious sickle cell anemia
- Heterozygous HB^A HB^S do not develop sickle cell anemia and are resistant to malaria, therefore best adapted in areas with malaria
Humans as Primates
- Grasping limbs with long fingers and separated by opposable thumb
- Mobile arms with shoulder joint allowing movement in 3 planes and the bones of the shoulder girdle allowing wright to be transfered via arms
- Stereoscopic vision with forward facing eyes on flattened face
- Skull modified for upright posture
- 4 to 2.5 million years
- Brain size: 400 to 500 cc
- Height: 1 to 1.52 meters
- 3 to 2.5 million years
- Brain size: 400 to 500 cc
- Height: 1.1 to 1.4 meters
- 2.4 to 1.6 million years
- Brain size: 600 to 800 cc
- Height: 1 to 1.5 meters
- 1.7 to 1.8 million years
- Brain size: 750 to 1250 cc
- Height: 1.3 to 1.5 meters
- 500,000 years
- Brain size: 1200 to 1750 cc
- Height: 1.5 to 1.7 meters
- 140,000 to 70,000 years
- Brain size: 1200 to 1700 cc
- Height: 1.6 to 1.85 meters
The time taken for the radio activity to fall to half of its original level
- Most commonly: C^14 / P^40
- C^14 for less far back dating
- P^40 for very far back dating
- C^14 half life = 5730 years
- P^40 half life = 1250 million years
Hominid Diet and Brain Size
- Eating meat increases supply of protein, fat and energy in died make possible for growth of brain
- Catching and killing in savannas more difficult than gathering plan food, natural selection favored hominids who had bigger brains and were smarter
Language, tool making skills, hunting techniques, methods of agriculture, religion, art
- These forms of behavior passed on from one generation the next, the cultural of the group
Natural selection between inherited differences
Cultural vs Genetic Evolution
- Cultural evolution does not involved change in the gene pool
- Cultural evolution can occur in human lifetime
- Cultural evolution involves characteristics acquired in ones life (culture) not (nature)
Genetics - squares
p+q = 1
p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1
Reasons for Classification
- Species identification
- Predictive value
- Evolution links
Its easier to find out which species an organism belongs to when organisms are classified
If several members of a group have a characteristic, another species in this group will probably have the characteristics too
Species in same group probably have common ancestor so classification can help predict how they have evolved
Biochemistry and Common Ancestry
- All use DNA or RNA as genetic material
- All use same universal genetic code with only few insignificant variations
- All use same 20 amino acids in proteins
- All use left and not right handed amino acids
Tracing evolutionary links and origins
Group of organisms that evolve from a common ancestor
connect leaves, roots, and flowers of plants and transport material between them using xylem and phloem tissue
support and transport of water and mineral nutrients
transport of food (sugars)
produces food by photosynthesis. the main part of the leaf is the blade or lamina and is .3 mm thick
waxy covering to prevent water loss (thicker on top of leaves)
continuous layer of cells that prevents water loss
layer of tightly packed cells that surround the xylem and phloem, only in dicots
consists of densely packed cylindrical cells w/ many chloroplasts. Found only in dicots
consists of loosely packed rounded cells with few chloroplasts. Provides main gas exhange surface so must be near the stomata. Found in dicots and monocots. Co2 storage
PORE that allows CO2 for photosynthesis to diffuse in and O2 to diffuse out
pair of cells that can open and close the stoma and control transpiration
leaf bases grow to form an underground food storage organ, ex: onion and garlic
underground stem that is a food storage organ, ex: potato
swollen roots used as food storage organ, ex: carrot and radish
narrow out growths from leaves that rotate through the air until they touch a solid support, where they attach, ex: sweet peas
have apical and lateral meristems
where new cells continue to divide and grow (in plants)
meristem @ tip of stem and root where cells divide/grow; allow elongation
meristem on side of a stem or root where cells divide or grow; allow increase in thickness
transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma, usually by wind or animal
the fusion of male and female gametes inside the ovule
fertilized ovules develop into seeds. Ovaries containing fertilized ovules develop into fruits and the function of the fruit is seed dispersal
pigment in plant leaves in which they can measure the period of dark
inactive type of phytochrome that absorbs red light with a wavelength of 660 nm, and is then rapidly converted in the active form, Pfr.
active form of phytochrome that can absorb red light with a wavelength of 730 nm, and then rapidly converts it back to Pr.
phloem (in active translocation)
companion cells+sieve tube members, located in all the veins of a leaf
the development of columns of cells into sieve tubes
break down nuclei and cytoplasm, and making large pores in their end walls to allow sap flow
sucrose, amino acids, prod. of photo., and any biochem
items transported via active translocation (plants)
bi-directional transport; source-leaves to sink-fruits, roots, storage organs
pressure flow hypothesis
movement of water into phloem causes transport of biochem
the transport of any biochem in phloem
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