27 terms

Chapter 13 Vocab.

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RNA
single stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose
Messenger RNA
type of RNA that carries copies of intructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from the rest of the cell
Ribosomal RNA
type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes
Transfer RNA
type of RNA that carries each amino acid to a ribosome during protein synthesis
Transcription
synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template
RNA Polymerase
enzyme that links together the growing chian of RNA nucleotides during transcription using a DNA strand as a template
Promoter
specific region of a gene where RNA polymerase can bind and begin transcription
Intron
sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein
Extron
expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein
Polypeptide
long chain of amino acids that makes proteins
Genetic Code
collection of codons of RNA, each of which directs the incorparation of a particular amino acid into a protein during protein synthesis
Codon
group of three nucleotide bases in mRNA that specify a particular amino acid to be incororated onto a protein
Translation
process by which the sequence of bases of an mRNA is converted into the sequence of amino acids of a protein
Anticodon
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to the three bases of a codon of mRNA
Gene Expression
process by which a gene produces its product and the product carries out its function
Mutation
change in the genetic material of a cell
Point Mutation
gene mutation in which a single base pair in DNA has been changed
Frameshift Mutation
mutation tha shifts the reading frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
Mutagen
chemical or physical agents in the environment that interact with DNA and may cause a mutation
Polyploidy
condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes
Operon
in prokaryotes, a group of adjacent genes that shares a common operator and promoter and are transcribed into a single mRNA
Operator
short DNA region, adjacent to the promoter of a prokaryotic operon, that binds repressor proteins responsible for controlling the rate of transcription of the operon
RNA Interference
introduction of double standed RNA into a cell to inhibit gene expression
Differentation
process in which cells become specialized in structure and function
Homeotic Gene
a class of regulatory genes that determine the identity of body parts and regions in an animal embryo. Mutations in these genes can transform on body part into another
Homeobox Genes
genes that code for transcription factors that activate other genes that are important in cell decelopment and differentation
Hox Gene
a group of homeotic genes clustered together that determine the head to tail identity of body parts in animals. All hox genes contain the homeobox DNA sequence