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Government Final Exam Review

STUDY
PLAY
Among the broad purposes of the United States government spelled out in the Preamble to the Constitution is the obligation to
provide for justice and the people's general welfare
Locke, Harrington, Hobbes, and Rousseau would most likely agree that
the state exists to serve the will of the people
the theory underlying modern democracies was developed to challenege the idea that
those of royal birth have absolute authority to rule
the dominant political unit in the world today is the
state
a federeal government is one in which
power is divided between a central government and local governments
which of the following statements is NOT true of parliamentary government
the legislature is subject to the direct control of the executive
the individual 50 states lack which basic characterisitcs of a state
sovereignty
in the charter colonies, most governmental matters were handled by
the colonists
which idea is NOT included in the declaration of independence
God gives certain people the right to govern
all of the following influenced the Framers in developing the Constitution EXCEPT
Virginia's royal charter
Which colony was founded mainly as a place for personal and religious freedom
Massachusetts
which feature did the state constitutions and the Articles of Confederation have in common
principle of popular sovereignty
which of these State constitutions is the oldest and still in force today
Massachusetts
After the Revolutionary War, the National Government
proved too weak to deal with growing economic and political problems
With the words, "We the People," the Constitution establishes its authority on the basis of
popular sovereignty
Which statement about the Bill of Rights is NOT true
The amendments were ratified at the same time as the Constitution
The informal amendment process
results from the daily experiences of government
The president's cabinet is an example of informal amendment by
unwritten custom
in most cases involving judicial review, the courts have
found the governmental actions in question to be constitutional
which of the following best describes the concept of limited government
Government must operate within certain bounds set by the people
which of the following is a method of formal amendment
proposal by two-thirds of Congress and ratification by three-fourths of state legislatures
the system of federalism provides for all of the following EXCEPT
uniform laws among the States
Concurrent powers are those that are
exercised simultaneously by the National and the State governments
An enabling act directs any area desiring Statehood to
prepare a constitution
States must honor the legality of one another's civil laws because of the
Full Faith and Credit clause
Local goverments derive their power from
State constitutions and State laws
Which of the following is an expressed power of the National Government
the power to coin money
Citizens who commit a crime in one State and then flee to another State to escape prosecution are to be returned to the original State under
extradition
In the United States, a political party is made up of a group of people who
work to get candidates elected to political offices
Most single-issue parties have been
short-lived
A multi-party system
is composed of parties with special interests
Which statement does NOT describe one type of minor party
the members of a minor party tend to support the platform of a major party
the national chairperson of a major political party
manages the party's headquarters
Although united states political parties focus on winning elections, most political parties in other countries also
have certain common principles they want adopted by goverment
people belong to a particular political party
voluntarily, because they made a personal choice
Which of the following is NOT a long-term trend marking the expansion of suffrage in the United States
the Federal Government taking less of a role in protecting suffrage rights
In the past, some states limited voting rights by
charging a poll tax
The provisions of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and its amendments of 1970, 1975, and 1982 apply to
all national, state, and local elections
The phenomenon in which fewer votes are cast for offices farther down the ballot is called
ballot fatigue
All of the following are significant reaons for nonvoting in United States elections today EXCEPT
widespread use of religion and literacy tests
the term political socialization can be defined as the
process by which people formulate their political attitudes and opinions
the expansion of suffrage in the united states
has been moved forward by amendments and civil rights acts
the nominating stage is important in the electoral process mostly because
nominations set real limits to the choices voters can make in genereal elections
petitions to nominate candidates
are generally required by State law for nominating minor party candidates
why are voting machines used
to minimize vote-counting errors
voters are asked to complete election ballots in all of the following ways EXCEPT
raising hands at a public meeting
money is an indispensable campaign resource because
it allows candidates to make themselves known to the public
campaign contribuations to a presidential candidate can
be made by any american
the oldest form of the nominating process in the United States is
self-announcement
which of the following is the earliest and one of the most significant agents in the political socialization process
family
which of the following is NOT a shortcoming of current scientific polls
they cannot accurately measure political preferences
polls are taken to
determine people's attitudes and viewpoints
the impact of the mass media on the public agenda can best be described as its ability to
focus the public's attention on specific issues
which of the following does NOT limit the influence of the mass media on public opinion
voters tend to pay attention to sources with which they agree
attitudes held by a significant number of people concerning governmental and political questions are known as
public opinion
"universe" is a term used to describe
the entire group of persons whose opinions a poll seeks to measure
all of the following are examples of groups that promote causes EXCEPT the
American Legion
A labor union is an organization of workers who
work in the same job or industry
the term grass roots refers to
average voters
an interest group tries to persuade people to
respond to its members' shared attitudes
trade associations usually represent
the business community
a positive aspect of interest groups is that they
help stimulate interest in public affairs
all of the following are propaganda techniques EXCEPT
supporting a government policy change
the lawmaking function of congress is central to democracy because
it is the means by which the public will becomes public policy
which qualification for House members is NOT in the constitution
must live in the district being represented
which statement about the Senate is true
it has two members from each state
which fact disqualifies a person from representing Utah in the senate
the candidate has been a citizen for eight years
the fact that all congressional districts in a State must have about the same number of people so that one person's vote is equal to another's is due to the
Wesberry v. Sanders ruling
compensation for sentors is
the same as for representatives
in Congress, screening bills for floor consideration is a major duty of
committee members
supreme court rulings have been key to broadening the scope of which expressed power
the commerce power
The powers of Congress are affected by all of the following EXCEPT what the
Constitution is silent about
In McCulloch v. Maryland, the Supreme Court
Upheld the doctrine of implied powers
The level of the nation's debt
is not limited by any government agency
Since 1789, the expansion of power of the National Government has been caused by all of the following EXCEPT
strict construction of the constitution
For what purpose does the Constitution give Congress the power to regulate bankruptcy?
to establish uniform procedures for dealing with insolvent debtors
The Supreme Court ruling in Gibbons v. Ogden expanded the
commerce power to include all commerical interactions
The duties of the House Rules Committee are best described as those of a
traffic cop
When the Senate's Republican causus wants party members to vote for a bill, the person who determines how many votes can be counted on is the
whip
The main reason that Congress creates committees is to
divide the workload
Which of the following is a way a bill can become a law without the President's signature?
The President fails to act on the bill within 10 days of recieving it while Congress is in session
To propose a constitutional amendment, Congress uses a
joint resolution
How and when bills reach the floor of the House is decided by the
Rules Committee
Committee chairpersons usually are chosen
on the basis of senority
In case the President is disabled, the way the Vice President becomes President is determined by the
25 Amendment
According to the Constitution the President must
be at least 35 years of age
As of January 20, 2001, the President receives a yearly salary of
$400,000
The electoral system broke down in the election of 1800 because of the
rise of political parties
If an incumbent President is seeking another term in office, who will his party likely nominate?
the Vice President
A State's presidential electors are chosen by
popular vote
A president can serve no more than__ years in office
10
The power of the presidency has been cause for debate MAINLY because
the presidency is the most powerful office in the world
Which of the following has NOT worked to strengthen the powers of the presidency?
the constitutional system of checks and balances
Which of the following statements about the President's power of removal is TRUE?
As a general, the President may remove any officerholders he or she has appointed
The President's military powers
are shared with Congress
The President CANNOT exercise judicial power by
granting pardons in cases of impeachment
Which of the following gives the President the power to issue executive orders?
congressional acts and the Constitution
The debate over the powers of the presidency is essentially a debate
between supporters of a strong presidency and supporters of a weak presidency
The Federal Government is considered a bureaucracy primarily because it
is a complex system of organization based on certain principles
Unlike staff agencies, line agencies
are directly responsible for adminstering programs
In the executive branch, the title of department is reserved for
Agencies of cabinet rank
Which one of the following is an example of an independent agency?
NASA
The civil service system was finally established because of
President's Garfield's assassination by an angry office seeker
The civil service system was created partly to ensure that federal employees
are promoted based on merit
Which one of the following does NOT contribute to the Federal Government's classification as a bureaucracy?
The government has three branches with checks and balances
The largest source of federal revenue from taxes comes from
income taxes
Taxes on the production, transportation, sale, or consumption of goods are ___ taxes
excise
The power to borrow money, historically, was seen as a way for the United States to
meet the costs of both long and short term crisis situations
One reason for the importance of the federal budget is that it
determines which public program will have money to operate
Which of the following limits on the Federal Government's power to tax is implied but not stated in the Constitution?
States shall not be taxed for their governmental activites
The Federal Government can levy taxes on all of the following groups EXCEPT
churches
A gift tax must be paid if a person
receives gifts valuing more than $10,000 in any one year
A key role of the secretary of state is
offering advice on foreign affairs to the President
The United States does not have any major strategic military alliance in the Middle East mainly because
the United States wants to maintain friendly relations with both Arabs and Israelis
During the cold war, American relations with the Soviet Union were dominated by
containment
Which is NOT a stated purpose of the United Nations?
to promote free trade throughout the world
A major feature of American foreign policy since World War II has been
deterrence
The secretary of defense is responsible for all of the following EXCEPT
selecting the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Which historic world event finally ended the United States' commitment to a policy of isolationism?
World War II
The court that first hears a case is said to have
original jursidiction
The list of cases to be heard by a court is called a
docket
Which of the following could be the subject of a criminal case tried in federal court?
counterfeiting
Which of the following is a TRUE statement about a writ of certiorari?
The Supreme Court grants cert in a limited number if instances
All of the following statements about the Court of Federal Claims are true EXCEPT
Decisions from the Court of Federal Claims cannot be appealed
One weakness of the Articles of Confederation was that
it did not provide for a national judiciary
Which of the following federal courts exercises both original and appellate jurisdiction?
the Supreme Court
Which of the following statements about civil rights is NOT true?
Rights are extended only to citizens
The Free Exercise Clause gives people the right to
believe whatever the choose to believe in matters of religion
Which of the following statements about prior restraint is TRUE?
The Supreme Court has only rarely upheld prior restraints
Laws against seditious speech have been upheld by the Supreme Court it they
urge people to overthrow the government
Government has the right to make reasonable rules regulating assemblies
to protect against the inciting of violence or the endangerment of life
The Due Process Clause guarantees that
States will not deny people any basic or essential liberties
A democracy must allow freedom of expression, otherwise
democracy does not really exist
The main reason that there is no exact definition of the due process guarentees is that the
The Supreme Court only defines the guarantees on a case by case basic
The right to privacy inherent in the concept of due process has been applied with the most controversy recently in cases involving
abortion
Under the 2nd Amendment
each State has the right to have a militia
An ___ requires the police to bring a prisoner before the court and explain why he or she should not be released
writ of habeas corpus
To have a fair trial, a person is guaranteed all of the follwoing EXCEPT
media coverage if demanded
The main reason the Constitution dealt specifically with the crime of treason was that
the Framers knew the charge of treason can be used for political reasons
Which of the following was declared by the Supreme Court to be "cruel and unusual punishment"
denying immates needed medical treatment
Which is the MOST accurate description of the way minority groupsw historically have been treated in the United States?
with reluctance to accept their equality
In regard to the issue of equality, the Constitution states that
no person can denied equal protection of the laws
With ___, the Federal Government hopes to overcome effects of past discrimination
affirmative action
A person can become a citizen of the United States by all the following means EXCEPT
illegally crossing the Mexican border into Texas
Over time, the makeup of the American population has become
more diverse
In the past, women have been denied which of the following
all of the above
Laws that treat men and women differently
may be upheld by the Supreme Court if they meet certain criteria
The structure of the Chinese Communist Party is similar to that of
the former Soviet Union's Communist Party
The customs and practives of British government are derived from
an unwritten constitution
In today's Russia, the Communist Party is
one of several political parties
Under the process of devolution, the British Parliament has reserved for itself exclusive powers in the areas of
defense, foreign policy, and macroeconomic policy
The main difference between the constitution of China and the United States is that
the Chinese Constitution reflects current government policy, not fundamental law
In England, Northern Ireland, and Whales, the final court of appeals in all cases is
the House of Lords
In Mexico's local government system, each state has all of the follwoing EXCEPT
a seperate president
Which political party has dominated Japanese politics since the end of World War II?
Liberal Democractic Party
The collapse of the Soviet communist government was mainly due to
its own inability to accommodate the rising demand for widespread democratic reform
Japan is a unitary state so its individual prefectures have
much less power than the individual States in the United States
Like the Constitution of the United States, Mexico's fundamental law establishes a national government
with three seperate, independent branches
Today, China regards the Republic of Taiwan as
its province
In China's political structure, the central government's control over local subdivision is best described as
direct
The Mexican constitution of 1917
established a system in which the government played a more active role in promoting the quality of Mexican life
Which of the following best describes the written portion of the British constitution?
its consists of historic charters, acts of Parliament, and innumerable court decisions
Which of the following is NOT true of each State's consitution?
Each state constitution takes priority over all provisions of federal law
In the Texas legislature, the lower house______
elects a speaker to preside
The Texas secretary of state _______
acts as the chief clerk and record-keeper
All of the following are nonlegislative powers held by State legislatures EXCEPT the
police power
Unlike a grand jury, a petit jury
is a trial jury used in both civil and criminal cases
Today, the most widely used method for selecting judges to sit in State and local courts its
popular election
A serious criminal case may be heard without a petit jury if the
accused waives the right to a trial by jury
The branch of law called equity
is used to prevent potential wrongs before they occur
Which State was the first in which popular approval played a direct role in the adoption and ratification of a State constitution?
Massachusetts
According to the Texas constitution, if a governor resigns or leaves office midterm, the ____ serves the remainder of his or her term
lieutenant governor
The _____ is the usual device by which new State constituions are written and older constituions revised
selection by legislature
Most long State constitutions would be improved if
they separated fundamental law from statutory law
How long are the terms of State legislators?
2 or 4 years
Which action is based on the police power of State legislatures?
requiring the use of seat belts
The fundamental laws of each State are
the State constitution
All of the following include examples of the common functions of counties EXCEPT the
dividing of land into residential, commercial, and industrial zones
The largest expenditure in the Texas state budget is for _____
education
City zoning is most often opposed on the grounds that it
denies people the right to use their property as they choose
Many weaknesses of county government are caused by the lack of
a centralized executive authority
Which fo the following includes examples of the ways in which metropolitan areas attempt to meet fiscal challenges?
all of the above
Which statement is true about all counties in the United States
they can only be created by the State
Funding for education in Texas comes from
all of the above
The main purpose of a city's charter is to
set out the city's basic laws
The main reason that States hold many important powers is that the
framers distrusted a strong central government
The purpose of a State budget is to
decide which agencies receive money and how much
State constitutions may limit taxes on
religious and other nonprofit groups
At the State and local level, the first step in the typical budget process is that
each agency prepares estimates of its needs and expenditures for the upcoming year
As a type of local government, special districts are created to
meet specified public needs
The planning method most cities rely on to classify and control land use within their boundaries is called
zoning
An unreasonable tax classification would be one aimed exclusively at
people over 65