50 terms

Ancient Greece chapter 3

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Minoan civilization
2000 BC.
earliest center of civilization
located on Crete
wealthy
loved beauty.
Mycenaean civilization
Mainland of Greece,
leading commercial center of Aegean region,
Loved Military pursuits, Fought constantly,
expanded trade through sea raids, piracy
Homer
Greek poet whose poems provide nearly the only glimpse of the early Greek way of life.
"Homeric Age"
wrote Iliad and Odyssey
What Aegean culture displayed a love for military pursuits?
Mycenaean Culture
From what two epic poems do we get a glimpse of Greek life during the period from 1150 BC to 750 BD?
Iliad, Odyssey
To whom are Iliad and Odyssey attributed?
Homer
Why did the isolation of the Greek city-states result in a spirit of independence and a love of individualism?
Each city state assumed they were the most important or even the only Greeks making them very independent and self-sufficient.
polis
greek root word meaning: city (acropolis), people and their government. Politics, politician, body politic
monarchy
Rule by one,
King advised by nobles or assembly
oligarchy-
Rule of a few,
privileged class assumed the king's powers,
produced great tension between the wealthy noble class and the lower class.
tyranny
Rule by a tyrant who gained completd control of government usually by force.
democracy
Rule by the people,
qualified adult male citizens voted on everything.
Helots
Sparta's Inhabitants made slaves by the new rulers.
Peloponnesian League
neighboring city-states established by force by the Spartans to insure oligarchies governments and to thwart any democratic principles.
Solon
Athens Archon arund 594bc. Took a step toward democracy provided economic and political stability.
Instituted reforms that helped the common man.
Archon
chief magistrate in an obligatory,

elected from the nobility.
What two Greek city-states represented two-opposing ways of life within Greek society?
Sparta and Athens
What Greek city-state was characterized by creativity, commercial endeavors, democracy, and individualism?
Athens
Darius I
Persian King,
crushed Greek revolt,
sought to punish Athens for helping Greeks.
Same Darius in Ezra 6:1.
Government aided in reconstruction of God's temple in Jerusalem.
Xerxes
Son of King Darius,
burned Athens to the ground,
Delian League
Formation of a defensive alliance among the Greek city-states to protect themselves against any further Persian attacks. Athens became leader.
Pericles
Greek history from 460 to 429 BC called "The Age of Pericles." For over thirty years Pericles was the influential leader of Athens. He called Athens the "school of Greece."
Peloponnesian War
431-404 BC,
Athens had grown in influence and wealth,
began to transform the Delian League into an Athenian empire. Sparta became alarmed over commercial & political power Athens had acquired. Tension between two rivals started war.
What eastern civilization threatened the Greeks at the outset of the fifth century?
Persian Empire.
Across what body of water did Xerxes make a bridge of boats to move his army?
Aegean Sea
Who was the influential leader of Athens during its Golden Age?
Pericles
Which group of city-states emerged as victors in Peloponnesian War
Sparta & Persia
Darius III-
Led Persian army, In heat of one battle, Darius fled, left behind wife, mother, children to be taken captive. Defeated by Alexander the Great.
Over what kingdom did Philip II rule?
Macedonia
Who was the teacher of Alexander the Great who instilled in his young pupil a love for Greek culture?
Aristotle
Hellenic
word used to describe Greek culture
Hellenistic
Greek armies conquered many areas, Alexander's conquests spread the Greek language and way of life throughout much of the ancient world. As a result, Hellenic culture mixed with the cultures of the East. A new culture emerged; it was no longer just Hellenic, meaning "Greek," but Hellenistic, "like the Greek."
humanities-
formal study of human thought and culture
philosophers-
"lovers of wisdom,"
tried to find answers to basic questions of life through man's reasoning ability.
Believed that highest good was to seek truth, attain knowledge.
Thales-
Father of Philosophy
Socrates-
Contemporary of Pericles,
devoted life to seeking truth and teaching men how to conduct their lives.
His motto "Know thyself." "The unexamined life is not worth living."
Plato -
most famous pupil of Socrates,
established a school of philosophy and science called the Academy,
devised one of the first plans for an ideal society and government
anarchy-
the breakdown of government and order.
Aristotle-
one of the three famous Greek philosophers,
tutor of Alexander the Great
syllogism-
a three-step logical process of thinking.
The following is a good example:
(1) All Greeks are human;
(2) Aristotle is a Greek;
(3) Therefore, Aristotle is human.
Epicurus-
believed that great happiness and pleasure could be achieved through the avoidance of pain and fear.
Zeno-
the founder of Stoicism,
taught that the affairs of men and the universe were ordered by fixed laws.
Man must accept his fate and live a life of duty and self- control.
Pythagoras-
philosopher and mathematician,
sixth century BC,
concluded the universe could be explained in mathematical terms.
His geometric theorem, the Pythagorean Theorem, is still studied by students taking geometry.
Hippocrates-
460-377 BC,
famed physician of Golden Age,
known as the Father of Medicine.
Euclid
Father of Geometry.
Founded school of mathematics in Egypt.
His textbook, Elements, continues to be the basis for geometry textbooks today.
Eratosthenes-
Greek astronomer and geographer,
determined the circumference of globe with amazing accuracy by using Euclid's geometry.
Formulated the lines of longitude and latitude that are still used today on maps.
Herodotus-
Father of History,
wrote with bias toward the Greeks.
Thucydides
contemporary of Herodotus,
wrote History of Peloponnese War,
more accurate and objective than Herodotus's. Thucydides was Athenian and fought briefly for Athens during war with Sparta, did not let personal affections influence his account of the war.
Aristophanes-
a writer of comedy,
among the most famous of the Greek dramatists.
his analysis of human behavior is just as penetrating today as it was in ancient Greece
Sophocles-
writer of tragedy,
among the most famous of the Greek dramatists,
his analysis of human behavior is just as penetrating today as it was in ancient Greece