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Ptolemaic System

The system thought of by Greek astronomer Ptolemy in the second century a.d. He expanded Aristotle's geocentric theory stating that the earth is the center of the universe. This came about 400 years after the geocentric thoery.


This idea was thought of by Aristotle in the fourth century b.c. geocentric was the word for the earth-centered view of the world. This theory led to many others leading to the Scientific revolution

Tycho Brahe

A century and a half after 1543 He built his research off of Copernicus's heliocentric theory. He was a Danish astronomer who recorded the movements of the planets for many years. He had produced accurate data from his observations.


In the 1500s Copernicus came up with this idea of the sun being the center of the universe. His theory still didn't fully explain why the planets orbited the way they did.


In the 1500-1600s, philosophers started appealing to reason as a source of knowledge of justification. Decartes was one of the philosophers who is highly associated with this.

Scientific Method

During the Scientific revolution, Ideas such as Kepler's and Galileo's began to develop a new approach to science.
It is a logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas. We still use this method today.

Scientific Revolution

In the 1500s scientist and philosophers began to come up with new ideas and theories replacing the old ones. This challenged the ideas of ancient thinkers and the church. This change in European thought is called the Scientific Revolution.


In the 1600s this astronomer built off of Copernicus's ideas and built his own telescope to study the heavens. In 1610, he published a book called the Starry Messenger telling all about his observations. The church was threatened by his ideas and he was forced to confess to the cardinals that Copernicus's ideas were false.

Francis Bacon

In the 1600s, He was an English statesman and writer. He believed that scientists should experiment then draw their own conclusions. This approach is called empiricism, or the experimental method.

Issac Newton

He was an English scientist in the 1600s who explained the Law of Gravity. According to his law every object in the universe attracts every other object. In 1687 he published one of the most important science books called the Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.


This was developed as apart of the scientific method. Its an unproved assumption or educated guess.

Nicholas Copernicus

In the 1500s he was a Polish cleric and astronomer who believed in the heliocentric view of the world. He didn't publish his findings until 1543, when he was on his death bed, in fear of rejection of his theories from the clergy.

René Decartes

In France in the 1600s, He relied on mathematics and logic so everything could be proved by logic and reason. The only thing he knew that was for certain is he existed he wrote, " I think, therefore i am."

Johannes Kepler

German astronomer who first stated laws of planetary motion (1571-1630). He used Tycho Brahe's data and made calculations that proved the planets moved in elliptical movements around the sun; thus proving Copernicus heliocentric theory.

Zacharias Janssen

Dutch eyeglasses maker, credited for the invention of the compound microscope in 1590.

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

In the 1670s this Dutch merchant used a microscope to observe bacteria and examined red blood cells for the first time.

Evangelsita Torricelli

In 1643 she was one of Galileo's students who developed the first mercury barometer, a tool for measuring atmospheric pressure and predicting weather.

Gabriel Fahrenheit

The German Physicist created the first mercury thermometer in 1714. His thermometer showed water freezing at 32 degrees.

Anders Celsius

Swedish astronomer who developed another scale for the mercury thermometer in 1742 which showed water freezing at 0 degrees

Andreas Vesalius

A Flemish physician who dissected human corpse and recorded his observations, in 1543, in his book called, On the Structure of the Human Body. It was filled with detailed drawings of the human body.

Edward Jenner

In the late 1700s this physician introduced a vaccine to prevent small pox. He used cowpox to produce the worlds first vaccination.

Robert Boyle

He is known as the, "father of chemistry", and is considered the fonder of modern chemistry. He said that everything is made up of very tiny particles of matter. In the 1600s his law explained how volume,temperature, and pressure of gas affects each other.

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