27 terms


Adjectival modifier
A word, phrase or clause that acts as an adjective in qualifying the meaning of a noun or pronoun
A word that modifies, quantifies or otherwise describes a noun or pronoun
A word that modifies or otherwise qualifies a verb and adjective or another adverb
Adverbial phrase
A phrase that functions as an adverb
The noun to which a pronoun refers. A pronoun and its antecedent must agree in person, number, and gender. Michael and HIS teammates moved.
A noun or noun phrase that renames or adds identifying information to a noun it immediately follows. His brother, AN ACCOUNTANT WITH ARTHUR, was recently promoted.
The words A, AN, and THE, which signal or introduce nouns. The definite article THE reforest to a particular item: THE book. The indefinite articles A and AN refer to a general item or one not already mentioned: AN apple and A pear
auxiliary verb
A verb that combines with the main verb to show differences in tense, person, and voice. The most common auxiliaries are forms of BE, DO and HAVE. I AM going; we DID go; they HAVE gone.
The form of a noun or pronoun that reflects its grammatical function in a sentence as subject (THEY), object (THEM), or possessor (THEIR). SHE gave HER employees a raise that please THEM.
A group of related words that contains a subject and predicate. MOTHS SWARM around a burning candle. While SHE WAS TAKING the test, KAREN MUTTERED to herself.
A word or expression appropriate to informal conversation but not usually suitable for academic or business writing. They wanted to GET EVEN (instead of they wanted to RETALIATE).
A word/phrase (especially a noun or adjective) that completes the predicate. Subject complements complete linking verbs and rename/describe the subject: Martha is my NEIGHBOR. She is SHY. Object complements complete transitive verbs by r/d the object.
compound sentence
Two or more independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction, a correlative conjunction, or a semicolon. CAESAR CONQUERED GAUL, but ALEXANDER THE GREAT CONQUERED THE WORLD.
compound subject
Two or more simple subjects joined by a coordinating/correlative conjunction. HEMINGWAY AND FITZGERALD had little in common.
A word that joins words/phrases/clauses/sentences. The coordinating conjunctions, AND, BUT, OR, NOR, YET, SO , FOR, join grammatically equivalent elements. Correlative conjunctions (BOTH, AND; EITHER, OR; NEITHER, NOR) join the same kinds of elements.
A shortened form of a word/group of words: CAN'T for cannot; THEY'RE for they are.
correlative expression
(see conjunction)
dependent clause
A group of words that includes a subject and verb but is subordinate to an independent clause in a sentence. Dependent clauses begin with a subordination conjunction (IF, BECAUSE, SINCE) or a relative pronoun (WHO, WHICH, THAT).
direct object
A noun or pronoun that receives the action of a transitive verb. Pearson publishes BOOKS.
The -ing form of a verb that functions as a noun: HIKING is a good exercise. She was praised for her PLAYING.
indefinite pronoun
A pronoun that refers to an unspecified person (ANYBODY) or thing (SOMETHING).
independent clause
A group of words with a subject and verb that can stand alone as a sentence. RACCOONS STEAL FOOD.
indirect object
A noun or pronoun that indicates to whom or for whom, to what or for what the action of a transitive verb is performed. I asked HER a question. Ed gave THE DOOR a kick.
infinite/split infinitive
In the present tense, a verb phrase consisting of TO followed by the base form of the verb (TO WRITE). A split infinitive occurs when one or more words separate TO and the verb (TO BOLDLY GO).
intransitive verb
A verb that does not take a direct object. His nerve FAILED.
linking verb
A verb that joins the subject of a sentence to its complement. Professor Chapman IS a philosophy teacher. They WERE ecstatic.
loose sentence
A sentence that begins with the main idea and then attaches modifiers, qualifiers, and additional details: He was determined to succeed, with or without the promotion he was hoping for and inspire of the difficulties he was confronting at every turn.