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27 terms

1.8.2012

STUDY
PLAY
Adjectival modifier
A word, phrase or clause that acts as an adjective in qualifying the meaning of a noun or pronoun
Adjective
A word that modifies, quantifies or otherwise describes a noun or pronoun
Adverb
A word that modifies or otherwise qualifies a verb and adjective or another adverb
Adverbial phrase
A phrase that functions as an adverb
antecedent
The noun to which a pronoun refers. A pronoun and its antecedent must agree in person, number, and gender. Michael and HIS teammates moved.
appositive
A noun or noun phrase that renames or adds identifying information to a noun it immediately follows. His brother, AN ACCOUNTANT WITH ARTHUR, was recently promoted.
articles
The words A, AN, and THE, which signal or introduce nouns. The definite article THE reforest to a particular item: THE book. The indefinite articles A and AN refer to a general item or one not already mentioned: AN apple and A pear
auxiliary verb
A verb that combines with the main verb to show differences in tense, person, and voice. The most common auxiliaries are forms of BE, DO and HAVE. I AM going; we DID go; they HAVE gone.
case
The form of a noun or pronoun that reflects its grammatical function in a sentence as subject (THEY), object (THEM), or possessor (THEIR). SHE gave HER employees a raise that please THEM.
clause
A group of related words that contains a subject and predicate. MOTHS SWARM around a burning candle. While SHE WAS TAKING the test, KAREN MUTTERED to herself.
colloquialism
A word or expression appropriate to informal conversation but not usually suitable for academic or business writing. They wanted to GET EVEN (instead of they wanted to RETALIATE).
complement
A word/phrase (especially a noun or adjective) that completes the predicate. Subject complements complete linking verbs and rename/describe the subject: Martha is my NEIGHBOR. She is SHY. Object complements complete transitive verbs by r/d the object.
compound sentence
Two or more independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction, a correlative conjunction, or a semicolon. CAESAR CONQUERED GAUL, but ALEXANDER THE GREAT CONQUERED THE WORLD.
compound subject
Two or more simple subjects joined by a coordinating/correlative conjunction. HEMINGWAY AND FITZGERALD had little in common.
conjunction
A word that joins words/phrases/clauses/sentences. The coordinating conjunctions, AND, BUT, OR, NOR, YET, SO , FOR, join grammatically equivalent elements. Correlative conjunctions (BOTH, AND; EITHER, OR; NEITHER, NOR) join the same kinds of elements.
contraction
A shortened form of a word/group of words: CAN'T for cannot; THEY'RE for they are.
correlative expression
(see conjunction)
dependent clause
A group of words that includes a subject and verb but is subordinate to an independent clause in a sentence. Dependent clauses begin with a subordination conjunction (IF, BECAUSE, SINCE) or a relative pronoun (WHO, WHICH, THAT).
direct object
A noun or pronoun that receives the action of a transitive verb. Pearson publishes BOOKS.
gerund
The -ing form of a verb that functions as a noun: HIKING is a good exercise. She was praised for her PLAYING.
indefinite pronoun
A pronoun that refers to an unspecified person (ANYBODY) or thing (SOMETHING).
independent clause
A group of words with a subject and verb that can stand alone as a sentence. RACCOONS STEAL FOOD.
indirect object
A noun or pronoun that indicates to whom or for whom, to what or for what the action of a transitive verb is performed. I asked HER a question. Ed gave THE DOOR a kick.
infinite/split infinitive
In the present tense, a verb phrase consisting of TO followed by the base form of the verb (TO WRITE). A split infinitive occurs when one or more words separate TO and the verb (TO BOLDLY GO).
intransitive verb
A verb that does not take a direct object. His nerve FAILED.
linking verb
A verb that joins the subject of a sentence to its complement. Professor Chapman IS a philosophy teacher. They WERE ecstatic.
loose sentence
A sentence that begins with the main idea and then attaches modifiers, qualifiers, and additional details: He was determined to succeed, with or without the promotion he was hoping for and inspire of the difficulties he was confronting at every turn.