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Biology Chapter 2

First semester Exam study
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ATP
a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue
Carbohydrates
Organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the proportion of 1:2:1.
Catalyst
something that causes an important event to happen
Chemical Bond
the force that holds two atoms together
Covalent bond
a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
DNA
a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
Dehydration
the process of extracting moisture
Element
an artifact that is one of the individual parts of which a composite entity is made up
Enzyme
any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
Hemoglobin
a hemoprotein composed of globin and heme that gives red blood cells their characteristic color
Hydrolysis
a chemical reaction in which water reacts with a compound to produce other compounds
Lipid
an oily organic compound insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents
Nucleic Acid
an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
Protein
macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes
Polymer
a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers
RNA
ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
Substrate
the substance acted upon by an enzyme or ferment