103 terms

Unit 1 Terms

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Hammurabi
Amorite ruler of Babylon (r. 1792-1750 B.C.E.). He conquered many city-states in southern and northern Mesopotamia and is best known for a code of laws, inscribed on a black stone pillar, illustrating the principles to be used in legal cases. (p. 34)
Stone Age
The historical period characterized by the production of tools from stone and other nonmetallic substances. It was followed in some places by the Bronze Age and more generally by the Iron Age. (p. 11)
Neolithic
The period of the Stone Age associated with the ancient Agricultural Revolution(s). It follows the Paleolithic period. (p. 11)
Paleolithic
The period of the Stone Age associated with the evolution of humans. It predates the Neolithic period. (p. 11)
Agricultural Revolution
The change from food gathering to food production that occurred between ca. 8000 and 2000 B.C.E. Also known as the Neolithic Revolution. (p. 17)
Babylon
The largest and most important city in Mesopotamia. It achieved particular eminence as the capital of the Amorite king Hammurabi in the eighteenth century B.C.E. and the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar in the sixth century B.C.E. (p. 29)
Sumerians
The people who dominated southern Mesopotamia through the end of the third millennium B.C.E. They were responsible for the creation of many fundamental elements of Mesopotamian culture-such as irrigation technology, cuneiform, and religious conceptions.
Semitic
Family of related languages long spoken across parts of western Asia and northern Africa. In antiquity these languages included Hebrew, Aramaic, and Phoenician. The most widespread modern member of the Semitic family is Arabic. (p. 32)
city-state
A small independent state consisting of an urban center and the surrounding agricultural territory. A characteristic political form in early Mesopotamia, Archaic and Classical Greece, Phoenicia, and early Italy. (p. 32)
ziggurat
massive pyramidal stepped tower made of mudbricks. It is associated with religious complexes in ancient Mesopotamian cities, but its function is unknown. (p. 37)
cuneiform
A system of writing in which wedge-shaped symbols represented words or syllables. It originated in Mesopotamia and was used initially for Sumerian and Akkadian but later was adapted to represent other languages of western Asia.
hieroglyphics
System of writing in which pictorial symbols represented sounds, syllables, or concepts. Used for official and monumental inscriptions in ancient Egypt.
papyrus
A reed that grows along the banks of the Nile River in Egypt. From it was produced a coarse, paperlike writing medium used by the Egyptians and many other peoples in the ancient Mediterranean and Middle East. (p. 44)
Harappa
Site of one of the great cities of the Indus Valley civilization of the third millennium B.C.E. It was located on the northwest frontier of the zone of cultivation , and may have been a center for the acquisition of raw materials. (p. 48)
Mohenjo-Daro
Largest city of the Indus Valley civilization. It was centrally located in the extensive floodplain of the Indus River. Little is known about the political institutions of Indus Valley communities, but the large-scale implies central planning. (p. 48)
Shang
The dominant people in the earliest Chinese dynasty for which we have written records (ca. 1750-1027 B.C.E.). Ancestor worship, divination by means of oracle bones, and the use of bronze vessels for ritual purposes were major elements of Shang culture.
Zhou
The people and dynasty that took over the dominant position in north China from the Shang and created the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. Remembered as prosperous era in Chinese History. (p. 61)
Mandate of Heaven
Chinese religious and political ideology developed by the Zhou, was the prerogative of Heaven, the chief deity, to grant power to the ruler of China.
Hatshepsut
Queen of Egypt (1473-1458 B.C.E.). Dispatched a naval expedition down the Red Sea to Punt (possibly Somalia), the faraway source of myrrh. There is evidence of opposition to a woman as ruler, and after her death her name was frequently expunged. (p.66)
Olmec
The first Mesoamerican civilization. Between ca. 1200 and 400 B.C.E., the Olmec people of central Mexico created a vibrant civilization that included intensive agriculture, wide-ranging trade, ceremonial centers, and monumental construction. (86)
Israel
In antiquity, the land between the eastern shore of the Mediterranean and the Jordan River, occupied by the Israelites from the early second millennium B.C.E. The modern state of Israel was founded in 1948. (p. 98)
monotheism
Belief in a single divine entity. The Israelite worship of Yahweh developed into an exclusive belief in one god, and this concept passed into Christianity and Islam. (102)
diaspora
A Greek word meaning "dispersal," used to describe the communities of a given ethnic group living outside their homeland. Jews, for example, spread from Israel to western Asia and Mediterranean lands in antiquity and today can be found in other places.103
Zoroastrianism
A religion originating in ancient Iran with the prophet Zoroaster. It centered on a single benevolent deity-Ahuramazda, Emphasizing truth-telling, purity, and reverence for nature, the religion demanded that humans choose sides between good and evil (120)
Vedas
Early Indian sacred "knowledge"-the literal meaning of the term-long preserved and communicated orally by Brahmin priests and eventually written down. (175)
sub-Saharan Africa
Portion of the African continent lying south of the Sahara. (p. 216)
Bantu
Collective name of a large group of sub-Saharan African languages and of the peoples speaking these languages. (p. 219)
Agriculture
Large scale crops and animal husbandry
Agrarian
Having to do with farming
Clans
A related group of people within a clan
Barbarian
Someone who is not civilized
Bureaucracy
A system with a hierarchy, lots of rules and specialization
Civilization
A group that is culturally and technologically developed
Domestication
Taming animals or plants
Economy
System of exchanging things or money for things
Egalitarian
Equal
Foraging
Searching for something
Hierarchy
A set of levels with one higher than the other
Hunter-Gatherer
Hunting for game and gathering plant products
Irrigation
Moving water for fertilization of crops or to stop floods
Monotheism
Believing in one god
Nomadic
Moving from place to place with no real home (opposite of sedentary)
Pastoral
Shepherds who follow herds
Philosophy
"love of wisdom", searching for understanding of reality
Polytheism
Believing in more than one god
Sedentary
Not moving (opposite of nomadic)
Subsistence
The minimum one needs to live
Surplus
Extra
Sustenance
Food
Theocracy
A government ruled by a religion
Traditional
The way things have been done in the past
Urbanization
Becoming more based on cities
Code of Hammurabi
A system of laws from Babylon. The first written law code known. Eye for an eye.
Cuneiform
Wedge shaped writing style in Sumer. The first written language known.
Iron Age
Time when Iron was used to make weapons. Around 1000BCE to 500CE in different places
Jewish Diaspora
Forced migrations of Jews. First by Assyrians, then by the Romans
Shang Dynasty
First Chinese dynasty
Cultural diffusion
People spread their cultures to new areas through this process.
Demography
The study of population.
Marker events
Events that have changed the course of history.
Migrations
Permanent moves to new locations that occur on local, regional, and global levels.
Periodization
The process of "chunking" world history into different time periods.
Push and pull factors
Respectively, something that encourages people to move from the region that they live in, and something that attracts them to a new region.
Bipedalism
The preference for walking on two limbs rather than four.
Primary sources
Original evidence from the time period.
Paleolithic Age
Old Stone Age.
Horticulture
Agriculture in which only hand tools are used to cultivate crops.
Pastoralism
Domestication and keeping of animals.
Independent invention
No cultural diffusion involved to discover a key tool or element.
Surplus
More crops than the farmer needed to feed his own family.
Polytheism
The belief in multiple gods.
Division of labor
Splitting up labor between peoples in order to get all the work done that needed to be done.
Specialization
The idea that those most talented in one particular area would do that work for the whole village.
Aryans
Invaders of early India from the northwest, spoke Indo-European languages.
Cataracts
Areas in rivers where the water was too swift and rocky to allow boats to pass.
Chavin
Early civilization in South America, not on a river valley.
City-state
A city that with its surrounding territory forms an independent state.
Civilization
Generation of reliable surpluses, highly specialized occupations, clear social class distinctions, growth of cities, complex and formal governments, long-distance trade, organized writing system- all these are important characteristics of ____________.
Confucianism
Religion developed in early China, touted the importance of civic virtue.
Dravidian
Language similar to those spoken in southern India.
Dynasty
Family based kingdom.
Epic of Gilgamesh
Story that dates back to the 7th millennium, about a character who went on an epic journey in pursuit, which he did not find.
Fertile Crescent
Wide swath of land from Mesopotamia to Egypt known for its abundance.
Horus
The sky god, hawk head, man body. (Egypt)
Labor systems
Coordinated efforts to get work done.
Mandate of Heaven
Chinese belief that Heaven granted emperors the right to rule over China based on their ability to govern well and fairly.
Matrilineal
Family line traced through the mothers.
Mesopotamia
"land between the rivers", earliest civilization, between Tigris and Euphrates.
Mohenjo-Daro
One of the major cities of the Indus Valley civilization.
Olmec
First advanced civilization in Mexico, Tenochtitlan.
Oracle bones
Specially prepared bones or turtle shells, each inscribed with a question. (China)
Papyrus
Paper like material used by the Egyptians.
Patriarchy
Society dominated and run by men.
Pharaoh
God-kings of Egypt.
Pictographs
Pictures representing animals, people, and objects.
Rosetta Stone
Tablet with a relatively long script in three languages: formal hieroglyphics, an informal Egyptian writing, and Greek.
Semitic
Relating to the peoples who speak the ______ languages, especially Hebrew and Arabic.
Shamans
Individuals who claimed the ability to contact the ancestors.
Shang dynasty
Dynasty following the Xia, conquerors from the north. (China)
Social mobility
The ability of individuals to change social status.
Theocracy
Form of government where the religious leaders are in charge.
Tribute
Payment usually in the form of produce.
Ziggurats
Large multi story pyramids constructed by bricks and approached by ramps and stairs.
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