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APWH Unit 1 Questions

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The religion of most ancient civilizations with the exeptions of Christianity and Hebrew were...
Polytheistic. Belief in multiple gods who impact daily life on earth to varying degrees, sometimes for good, and sometimes not.
What impacts did Polytheism have in the development of civilization?
Art,(grand works dedicted to the gods) People became dependant on elevated groups of people to control their collective densities. (Socical structures with priests near the top)
What technology came with Empires through 600 ce?
Farming tools:ploughs, hoes, rakes and the wheel. Pottery to store food. Bone and stone tools. The wheel includes carts and (wheeled charriots 1500 BCE) Chariots brought war fare. Mountains in Mediterranean limited the use of chariots and horses.
How did civilizations change their environment to benefit from it?
Irigation: simple dikes or canals to capture water of floods and precios fertile silt. (stone cutting, and metal working) Indus River Valley had sewage systems 2500 BCE
People developed specialiaztion (skills and crafts) when food supply was stable. This allowed trade of..
Silk, cotton, wool, jewelry, olive oil and spices. societies started keeping a record, calendars.
Womens' social status ______ when civilizations are settled.
Decreases.Womens roles in high status food-production became more limited.
Public veiling of women appeared as early as the Babylonian Empire and spread by Greek and Roman times. What did this mean?
Respected women were veiled. They were protected, not permitted to show more than their eyes. Unprotected women were that of peasants and female slaves working outside; they were not veiled.
What are three points that contributed to the growth of early civilzations?
Agriculture, written language, and the use of metals.
Why do dominant civilizations begin to fall apart?
They get too big, their own people get restless,foriegn threats gain confidence and power.
Beliefs were spread by cultural diffusion, but also...
Trade and conquest.
What is the name of the first human like creature and the origin?
Australopithicines (Lucy) Found in Ethiopia
Migrations from Africa were shown
Across the Bering Strait or down the west coast of North America.
What were the first crops in the Middle East?
Wheat and Barley. Rice in China, Yams in Africa, maize in America.
Identify the domesticated animals in Middle East.
Lambs, goats, and cows in the Middle East. North America only had the llama.
The first two agricultural "settlements" were...
Jericho 8000 BCE (Israel) OR Chatel Huyuk 7000 BCE (Turkey)
Along with technology and substantial food supply, what are some other key points in a civilization?
Job specialization Writing Art Trade Stratification (grouping, separation) Army
Which two metals were important?
1st Bronze(copper+tin) 3000 BCE
1st Iron 1300 BCE
Hunter/Gatherers had what type of relationship with men and womens roles?
Egalitarian. This began to disappear with the rise of civ.
Earliest known writing?
Cuneiform
Decribe the environment of Mesopotamia
Unpredictable flooding, (angry gods) vulnerable for invasion,doubted after life
Describe the environment of Egypt
Cataracts, deserts,and waterfalls protected the city from invasion. The Nile was predictable in flooding patterns. Afterlife was thought to be achieved by high class and people with good moral lives. Women had more oppurtunities. 3 kingdoms, old, middle,
Sumerian civ made what advancements?
wheel, calendar, 60 base number system.
Hammurabi followed what rules?
An eye fo an eye. A punishment to fit the crime or be equal
What is diffusion?
Getting something from another culture. the spread of ideas through interactions with outsiders.
Indus seals found in Mesopotamia and China shows...
long distance trade
The Shang Dynasty (China) had oracle bones. Describe significance of oracle bones.
Scratched questions onto bones, thrown into a fire and the way the bones would crack would tell the answers from ancestors. Like a magic 8 ball
Which civilization had The Mandate of Heaven?
Zhou Dynasty (Joe)The Mandate of Heaven was the belief that God gave the Emperor the right to rule if he is good. (devine)
What was the significance of Bantu migrations?
Spread language, farming and iron working skills. (Sub Sahara)2000 BCE
Phonecians brought...
First alphabet
What is Animism?
animating and giving objects spirits, Asia, Africa
What is intensification?
Getting more for less. More crops on a smaller piece of land, CONTINUING HUMN EFFORT TO SUBDUE THE EARTH.
The end of the last Ice Age brought what?
Warmer, wetter, better. Stable condtions for farming.
Where did the Neolithic Rev occur?
China
Fertile Crescent
New Guinea
Mesoamerica
Andes
what were the indications of a fully transition to a fully ag way of life in Fertile Cresent?
Larger settlements, Monuments, Elaboratee burials, Fancy polished axes, environmentl change. Jordan River/Palestine areas abandoned due to deforrestation
Describe the developmemt of ag in Africa around 3000 BCE.
Started in Nigeria,Bantu speaking people moved Eas and South spreading language, husbandry, iron working.
When did most Paleolithic societies die out?
1 CE
No farming, depending on animals, (herders, pastorialists, nomads. Central Asia, Arabian Penninsula, Sahara. Mobile. Clan/tribe based.
Pastorialists
...
...
some inequalities (elders over young, men over women)
Agricultural Village Societies
Power passed down through generations, no force, only charisma, gifts and religious status. controlled army, food supply
Cheifdoms
Buried dead and filled in dirt over houses, taveled by roof top, protected from floods, could see enemies from afar.
Catalhuyuk in Turkey
The taming and changing of nature for the benefit of human kind
Domestication
Fertile Cresent was found in..
Southwest Asia,Modern day Iraq, Syria,Israel/Palestine and southern Turkey
Wild ancestor of Maize
teosinte
1st civilizations
1:Sumer
2:Egypt
3:Norte Chico
4:Indus Valley
5:China (Shang and Zhou)
6:Olmec
Quipus used for accounting in which civ?
Norte Chico
Civ with earliest written language..
Sumer
Civ with standardized weights and bricks, written language, LITTLE POLITICAL HIERARCHY...
Indus Valley
Civ including Son of Heaven..Mandate of Heaven
Shang and Zhou
Basalt heads weighing 20 tons and ritual scrifice
Olmec
Social inequality was expressed by what?..
Wealth, no physical labor by rich, clothing, house, burial
Female slaves were put to work in large scale weaving enterprises while male slaves were...
used to help maintain irrigation canals and construct ziggurats.
1-3 describe the extense of slavery in rome/egypt/meso
Rome-1(most)
Mesopotamia-2
Egypt:3(least)
In Mesopotamia, goddesses were replaced by...
dominant male dieties, taking credit for birth.
Who was the god of the dead?
Osirus
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