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the science of the structure of living organisms

Organ System

A group of organs that work together to perform a vital body function; ex: nervous system

Muscular system

Organ system consisting of skeletal muscles and their connective tissue attachments

Lymphatic system

lymphatic vessels, and the lymphoid tissues and organs

Reproductive system

organ system that functions to produce offspring


the sum total of the chemical reactions that occur in the body


(1) a peripheral nerve ending specialized for response to particular types of stimuli. (2) molecule that binds specifically with other molecules


refers to the head or upper body regions


toward the midline of the body


farthest from the point of attachment of a limb or origin of a structure


the science of the functioning of living organisms


an individual living thing

Nervous system

fast acting control system that employs nerve impulses to trigger muscle contraction or gland secretion

Respiratory system

organ system that carries out gas exchange; includes the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs


includes all the activities promoted by the muscular system, such as propelling ourselves from 1 place to another


the elimination of waste products from the body

Control center

determines the level (set point) at which a variable is to maintained, analyzes the information it receives and determines the appropriate response or course of action


(caudal) pertaining to a position near the tail end of the long axis of the body


away from the midline of the body


(external) located close to or on the surface


the smallest part of an element; indivisible by ordinary chemical means


the basic biological unit of living organisms, enclosed by a limiting membrane; cells in more complex organisms contain a nucleus and a variety of organelles

Integumentary system

the skin and its accessory organs

Endocrine system

body sytem that includes internal organs that secrete hormones

Digestive system

system that processes food into absorbable units and eliminates indigestible wastes


the ability to sense changes (stimuli) in the environment and then to react to them


the production of offspring


an organ, gland, or muscle capable of being activated by nerve endings


anterior or front


between a more medial and a more lateral structure (collarbone is intermediate between the breastbone and the shoulder)


(internal) away from the body surface


a group of similair cells specialized to perform a specific function; primary tissue types are epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissues


a part os the body formed of 2 or more tissues that performs a specialized function

Skeletal system

system of protection and support composed primarily of bone and cartiledge

Cardiovascular system

organ system that distributes blood to all parts of the body

Urinary system

system primarily responsible for water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance and the removal of nitrogen-containing wastes from the blood


the body process of breaking down foods chimcally and mechanically


a state of body equilibrium or stable internal environment of the body

Anatomical position

standard position of the body and body parts


(posterior) toward or at the backside of the body; behind


close to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

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