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41 terms

Anatomy #1

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Anatomy
the science of the structure of living organisms
Organ System
A group of organs that work together to perform a vital body function; ex: nervous system
Muscular system
Organ system consisting of skeletal muscles and their connective tissue attachments
Lymphatic system
lymphatic vessels, and the lymphoid tissues and organs
Reproductive system
organ system that functions to produce offspring
Metabolism
the sum total of the chemical reactions that occur in the body
Receptor
(1) a peripheral nerve ending specialized for response to particular types of stimuli. (2) molecule that binds specifically with other molecules
Superior
refers to the head or upper body regions
Medial
toward the midline of the body
Distal
farthest from the point of attachment of a limb or origin of a structure
Physiology
the science of the functioning of living organisms
Organism
an individual living thing
Nervous system
fast acting control system that employs nerve impulses to trigger muscle contraction or gland secretion
Respiratory system
organ system that carries out gas exchange; includes the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
Movement
includes all the activities promoted by the muscular system, such as propelling ourselves from 1 place to another
Excretion
the elimination of waste products from the body
Control center
determines the level (set point) at which a variable is to maintained, analyzes the information it receives and determines the appropriate response or course of action
Inferior
(caudal) pertaining to a position near the tail end of the long axis of the body
Lateral
away from the midline of the body
Superficial
(external) located close to or on the surface
Atoms
the smallest part of an element; indivisible by ordinary chemical means
Cells
the basic biological unit of living organisms, enclosed by a limiting membrane; cells in more complex organisms contain a nucleus and a variety of organelles
Integumentary system
the skin and its accessory organs
Endocrine system
body sytem that includes internal organs that secrete hormones
Digestive system
system that processes food into absorbable units and eliminates indigestible wastes
Responsiveness
the ability to sense changes (stimuli) in the environment and then to react to them
Reproduction
the production of offspring
Effector
an organ, gland, or muscle capable of being activated by nerve endings
Ventral
anterior or front
Intermediate
between a more medial and a more lateral structure (collarbone is intermediate between the breastbone and the shoulder)
Deep
(internal) away from the body surface
Tissue
a group of similair cells specialized to perform a specific function; primary tissue types are epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissues
Organ
a part os the body formed of 2 or more tissues that performs a specialized function
Skeletal system
system of protection and support composed primarily of bone and cartiledge
Cardiovascular system
organ system that distributes blood to all parts of the body
Urinary system
system primarily responsible for water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance and the removal of nitrogen-containing wastes from the blood
Digestion
the body process of breaking down foods chimcally and mechanically
Homeostasis
a state of body equilibrium or stable internal environment of the body
Anatomical position
standard position of the body and body parts
Dorsal
(posterior) toward or at the backside of the body; behind
Proximal
close to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk