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APUSH Unit 1 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (59)
First permanent English settlement founded in 1607 by the Virginia Company
The Starving Time
Winter of 1609-1610: Settlers in Jamestown weren't used to working so that they could eat and so they began to starve. Some resorted to canibilism and others joined nearby tribes.
Joint-stock company that received a charter (guaranteeing new colonists the same rights as people back in England) for land in the new world
Lord De La Warr
New governor of Jamestown who arrived in 1610, imposing a military regime in Jamestown and declaring war against the Powhatans; arson
Captain John Smith
English explorer who helped found the colony at Jamestown, Virginia; "He who shall not work, shall not eat."
Indian chief and founder of the Powhatan confederacy of tribes in eastern Virginia; peace with settlers until he dies.
a Powhatan woman (the daughter of Powhatan) who befriended the English at Jamestown and is said to have saved Captain John Smith's life
married Pocahontas and started the planting of tobacco in Jamestown
For each indentured servant a settler brought over to the colonies, 50 acres of land would be given to that settler
result of the disagreement between Henry VIII and the Pope, created the Church of England (Anglican Church), still with little religious freedom
The Great Migration
The movement of more than 20,000 people from England to Massachusetts between 1620-1633
Group of people who wanted to "purify" the Church of England. They established the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630
Church of England
(Anglican Church); Church created in England as a result of a political dispute between Henry VIII and the Pope
House of Burgesses
1619 - The Virginia House of Burgesses formed, the first official legislative body in colonial America.
A colony under the direct control of a monarch
The first "Lord Baltimore"; founded Maryland as a Catholic haven
a system that gave an individual a charter to operate a colony as a business
Maryland Toleration Act
1649; First law granting protection for all Christian religious groups.
Laborer who agreed to work without pay for a certain period of time in exchange for passage to America
Gov. William Berkeley
colonial governor of Virginia during Bacon's Rebellion; disliked because he gave power to wealthy landowners, hurting the commoners
leader of the rebellion against Gov. Berkeley; set the color line and was a precedent for the American Revolution
Settlers who wanted to separate from the Anglican Church; were persecuted by the king and escaped to the Netherlands, but were afraid of the "Dutchificiation"
Calvin's term for those destined for salvation, regardless of what actions they may commit during their mortal life on earth.
a document written by the settlers, establishing themselves as a political society and setting guidelines for self-government
Native American who helped the colonists in Mass. develop agricultural techniques; served as an interpreter b/w colonists and Wampanoag.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
1629 - Puritans governing a colony. The colony est. political freedom and a representative government.
First governor of the Puritan MBC in 1630; "City upon a hill"; wrote "A Modell of Christian Charity"
an agreement between God and his people; comes into play with "Covenant Theology," John Winthrop's idea that the Puritans have a promise with God to live life right.
"Society of Friends"; English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity. Under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
a divine presence believed by Quakers to enlighten and guide the soul
A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution.
founder of Georgia, a haven for people in debt and a buffer zone between Florida and the colonies
Helped to create the NC Fundamental Orders; natural rights: Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Property
Two Treaties on Government
1691; Work written by John Locke, people have natural rights and best type of government was a limited government
Atlantic Trading System
A three triangle trading system on which Africa, Europe, North America, and the West Indies depended on.
a favorable balance of trade; exports > imports
1651, 1673, 1696; A series of British regulations which taxed goods imported by the colonies from places other than Britain, or otherwise sought to control and regulate colonial trade. Increased British-colonial trade and tax revenues.
A Puritan minister who led settlers out of MBC to CT because he believed that officials had too much power. He wanted to set up a colony in CT with strict limits on government.
Fundamental Orders of CT
Set up a unified government for the towns of the CT area. First constitution written in America.
New England Towne Meetings
Democratic style of government, if on small scale. Towns and cities grew around gathering places, and allowed mass participation in politics.
Rev. Increase Mather
Put an end to the mass hysteria of the witch trials. Remaining people in jail were released or found innocent
Rev. Cotton Mather
Son of Increase Mather, true believer in the Salem Witch trials. He accused many of being witches, but later in his life grew to believe less in the supernatural.
Salem Witch Trials
Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational trials in Salem, Massachusetts at which Cotton Mather presided as the chief judge. Many were hanged or died in jail.
The Puritans began to baptize children who were half Puritan, half another religion because of their dwindling number of members; eventually all would be baptized
Puritan dissenter. She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637.
Puritan dissenter., A dissenter who clashed with the Massachusetts Puritans over separation of church and state and was banished in 1636, after which he founded the colony of Rhode Island to the south
An interpretation of Puritan beliefs that stressed God's gift of salvation and minimized what an individual could do to gain salvation; identified with Anne Hutchinson.
First Great Awakening
Religious revival movement during the 1730s and 1740s; its leaders were George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards; religious pluralism was promoted by the idea that all Protestant denominations were legitimate.
Theologian whose revival meetings focused around damnation and hellfire; stimulated the First Great Awakening
Most influential of the FGA; forms the Methodist Church; emotion-based religion; "Old Lights" and "New Lights"
-Want emotion in religion
-Want religious revival meetings
-Highly involved in the new religious formations
-Skeptical of emotion based religion theory
-Skeptical of revival meetings
a political unit governed by a deity (or by officials thought to be divinely guided)
An Indian was accused of killing a settler; the English attack them and burn down their village, shooting down all who try to escape. Pequots attack English, but English ally with another tribe and kill hundreds, capturing and selling many to Bermuda.
Indian tribe led by Metacom (aka King Philip).
King Philip's War
Issue with conversion of N.A. to Puritanism; one of the converted N.A. is found dead and settlers take revenge against the Wampanoags; retaliation in arson; goes back and forth. In proportion, killed more than any war fought in USA since.
Parris's slave from Barbados; first accused witch
a philosophical movement of the 18th century, characterized by belief in the power of human reason and by innovations in political, religious, and educational doctrine.
inspired first amendment of the press
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