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APUSH- The Atlantic World
Terms in this set (81)
The Church of England
King Henry the VIII (1534) because he wanted to divorce his wife. Broke away from the Roman Catholic Church and created the Church of England. Same as catholicisim except for divorce. It was the driving force for colonists to settle along the Atlantic Coast of North America
Dominant religious group in Massachusetts Bay Colony. Reform movement in the Anglican Church in the 16th and 17th centuries and came to America in 1629. The movement aimed at purifying the church of corruption split into separatists, who wanted to end ties with the established church and non-separatists. Seeking religious freedom was a strong motivation for colonies in America
Separatists were a group of Puritans who advocated total withdrawal from the Church of England and wanted the freedom to worship independently from English authority. They included the Pilgrims who migrated to America. Non-separatists sought to reform the church from within, and wanted to be protestant
The original group of puritan separatists that fled religious persecution in England and found refuge in what is now Massachusetts. The pilgrims sailed across the Atlantic and reached America in 1620 where they found the Plymouth colony and organized a government based on the Mayflower compact.
Agreement made by the pilgrims in 1620 when they landed in Plymouth. The compact created the Plymouth colony and made a civil government under James I based on the will of the colonists. The compact was important in the early organization and success of the colony
People who choose to stay with the church from within
Ships to New England 1633-1635
Led a group of English puritans to the New World, joined the Massachusetts Bay Company in 1629 and elected their governor on April 8, 1630. Between 1639 and 1648, he was voted out of governorship and re-elected a total of 12 times
An English theologian, a notable proponent of religious toleration and the separation of church and state, and an advocate for fair dealings with Native Americans. In 1644, he received a charter creating the colony of Rhode Island, named for the principal island in Narragansett Bay. He is credited for originating either the first or second Baptist church established in America.
A group arose in England in the mid-1600's, were called Quakers; name derived from when they supposedly quaked when under deep religious emotion; were originally known as the Religious Society of Friends; Quakers were offensive to authorities both religious and civil; refused to support the established Church of England with taxes; built simple meeting houses without a paid clergy; believed were all children in the sight of God; addressed people with thee's and thou's; would take no oaths because Jesus had condemned "Swear not at all." Abhorred strife and warfare and refused military service; were a simple devoted democratic people
A form of partial church membership created by New England Purtians in 1662. It was promoted in particular by the Reverend Solomon Stoddard, who felt that the people of the English colonies were drifting away from their original religious purpose. First-generation settlers were beginning to die out, while their children and grandchildren often expressed less religious piety, and more desire for material wealth. Provided a partial church membership for children and grandchildren of church members.
Salem Witch Trials
Series of hearings before local magistrates followed by county court trials to prosecute people accused of witchcraft in Essex, Suffolk, and Middlesex Counties of colonial Massachusetts, between February 1692 and May 1693. Over 150 people were arrested and imprisoned, with even more accused who were not formally pursued by authorities. The two courts convicted twenty-nine people of capital felony of witchcraft. Nineteen of the accused, fourteen women and five men, were hanged. One man who refused to enter a plea was crushed to death under heavy stones in an attempt to force him to do so. At least five more of the accused died in prison
The Fundamental Orders
An important example of the growth of political democracy. These laws provided for representative government by those who were permitted to vote
New England Confederation
New England colonists formed the New England Confederation in 1643 as a defense against local Native American tribes and encroaching Dutch. The colonists formed the alliance without the English crown's authorization
A period from 1607-1763 in which England did not strictly enforce Parliamentary laws, which allowed the colonies to flourish as almost independent states for many years. The purpose of salutary neglect was to ensure the loyalty of the colonists in the face of the French territorial and commercial threat in North America. The English ceased practicing salutary neglect following British victory in the French and Indian War.
Dominion of New England
For a brief time in the late 1600s, the English government developed the "Dominion of New England," which sought to bolster colonial defense in the event of war and bring the colonies under tighter royal control. King James II was becoming apprehensive about the New England colonies' increasingly independent ways, so the Dominion of New England was also designed to promote closer relations between England and its colonies. The Dominion of New England sought to stop American trade with anyone not ruled by England through Navigation Laws, therefore bringing England's overseas possessions closer to the motherland. King James II felt that out of all of the colonies, Massachusetts was in particular need of supervision because of its expanding power in the New World. Consolidation into a single colony of the New England colonies-and later New York and New Jersey-by royal governor Edmund Andros in 1686; dominion reverted to individual colonial governments three years later. The Dominion of New England angered colonists by
-Abolishing existing colonial legislatures
-Banning town hall meetings
-Requiring colonists in Massachusetts to pay an annual fee for new land titles
Was William Penn's term for the ideal government he established for Pennsylvania in 1681, when he obtained the charter for that colony from King Charles II of England. Penn believed that the charter was a gift from God, "that an example may be set up to the nations: there may be room there, though not here, for such an holy experiment." This "experiment," Penn believed, would be a success only if the colony was settled with people of virtue, whose spirituality would shape Pennsylvania society
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony
A plantation economy is an economy which is based on agricultural mass production, usually of a few staple products grown on large farms called plantations. Plantation economies rely on the export of cash crops as a source of income, they began importing slaves directly from Africa and to compensate for the deaths of their slaves they would encourage slaves to have children, even promising some their freedom when they produced 15 children
George Calvert- also known as lord Baltimore, As a reward for loyal service, the king granted Lord Baltimore, a Catholic nobleman, control of Maryland Lord Baltimore wanted Maryland to be a wealthy colony as well as a safe place for Catholics. He died in 1632, leaving Maryland to his son, Cecil
Act of Toleration (Maryland-1649)
a law mandating religious tolerance for Trinitarian Christians. Passed on April 21, 1649 by the assembly of the Maryland colony, in St. Mary's City.
Nathaniel Bacon (ca. 1640-1676) was a Virginia planter and the leader of the insurrection against Virginia Governor William Berkeley subsequently labeled Bacon's Rebellion.
the needs of recent settlers in the 'backcountry.' His shortcomings led to Bacon's Rebellion Berkeley: the royal governor of Virginia. Adopted policies that favored large planters and neglected
The most successful Indian uprising in American history. Taos and Apache Indians attacked the homes of 70 Spanish colonists and killed all but two
Revolution of 1688 which resulted in the overthrow of James II by William of Orange
William and Mary
they removed James II from power and ended the Dominion of New England, gave power back to colonies.
the unauthorized Puritan minister of a dissident church discussion group and a pioneer settler in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Netherlands. Her brilliant mind and kindness won admiration and a following. Hutchinson held Bible meetings for women that soon had great appeal to men as well. Eventually, she went beyond Bible study to proclaiming boldly facets of her own theological interpretations, some of which offended colony leadership. Great controversy ensued, and after an arduous trial before a jury of officials from both government and clergy, eventually she was banished from her colony
Anne Hutchinson's heretical belief that the truly saved not obey human or divine law. in theology, is the idea that members of a particular religious group are under no obligation to obey the laws of ethics or morality as presented by religious authorities, An interpretation of Puritan beliefs that stressed God's gift of salvation and minimized what an individual could do to gain salvation; identified with Anne Hutchinson
The early inhabitants of Jamestown were employees of the Virginia Company and were supposed to direct their labors toward the production of profits for the investors. It quickly became apparent that gold and silver did not exist in appreciable amounts in eastern North America, a fact that left the colony without a cash crop and the resultant threat of bankruptcy.The advent of the tobacco economy in the 1610s changed the course of Virginia's development. Tobacco production required large tracts of land and many workers. The company held title to tremendous amounts of land, but had few workers at their disposal.
In 1618, the headright system was introduced as a means to solve the labor shortage. It provided the following:
• Colonists already residing in Virginia were granted two headrights, meaning two tracts of 50 acres each, or a total of 100 acres of land.
• New settlers who paid their own passage to Virginia were granted one headright. Since every person who entered the colony received a headright, families were encouraged to migrate together.
• Wealthy individuals could accumulate headrights by paying for the passage of poor individuals. Most of the workers who entered Virginia under this arrangement came as indentured servants — people who paid for their transportation by pledging to perform five to seven years of labor for the landowner
owned by an individual with direct responsibility to the king; proprietor selected a governor, who served as the authority figure for the property
a poor person obligated to a fixed term of unpaid labor, often in exchange for a benefit such as transportation, protection, or training.
The Triangle Trade is the name given to a system of trade that occurred during the colonial era in American History. New Englanders traded extensively, exporting many commodities such as fish, whale oil, furs, and rum. However, one distinct route that formed was the triangular trade. This pattern occurred as follows:
-New Englanders manufactured and shipped rum to the west coast of Africa in exchange for slaves.
-The slaves were taken on the "Middle Passage" to the West Indies where they were sold for molasses and money.
-The molasses would be sent to New England to make rum and start the entire system of trade all over again.
Major religious revival (1740-1750) prior to the American Revolution that furthered individualism, opposed established authority and furthered American nationalism.
New Light Preacher
Johnathan Edwards is credited for starting the Great Awakening (1734). He did this by giving sermons to absolve their sin and pay penance by praying for salvation.
Congregationalist that was part of the Great Awakening during the 1720s to the 1740s. He is best known for his sermon, "Sinners in the Hands of God."
Sinners in the hands of an angry God
A sermon or talk given by Jonathan Edwards in 1741. Churchgoers were told that God was angry with the sinners of the earth and only those who obeyed God's word would be free from damnation.
A popular touring preacher in the middle of the 1700's who "cast spells over the audience." He was also a brilliant entrepreneur, and advertised many of his books in newspapers. He identified himself as a Calvinist, but did not care what denomination hi audience was, as long as they were Christian.
The visible arrangement of society into a hierarchical pattern, with distinct social groups layered one on top of the other.
Economic philosophy or practice in which England established the colonies to provide raw materials to the Mother Country; the colonies received manufactured goods in return.
French and Indian War
the 7 year war, Britain and France fought for control of the Ohio Valley and Canada. The Algonquins, who feared British expansion into the Ohio Valley, allied with the French. The Mohawks also fought for the French while the rest of the Iroquois Nation allied with the British. The colonies fought under British commanders. Britain eventually won, and gained control of all of the remaining French possessions in Canada, as well as India. Spain, which had allied with France, gave Florida to Britain, but received Louisiana in return.
During the Revolutionary War, Benjamin Franklin served as an ambassador to France. Franklin was the oldest delegate to the Constitutional Convention and his advice proved crucial in the drafting of the Constitution. Franklin has often been held up as the paradigm of Enlightenment throughout in Colonial America because of his contributions to the fields of science and philosophy
Albany Plan of Union
Benjamin Franklin submitted the Albany Plan during the Fr. and Ind. War on 1754 gathering of colonial delegates in Albany, New York. The plan called for the colonies to unify in the face of French and Native American threats. The delegates approved the plan, but the colonies rejected it for fear of losing too much power. The Crown did not support the plan either, as it was wary of too much cooperation between the colonies.
Chesapeake Bay Colony
first permanent English settlement in the New World, started at Jamestown by the London Company who had received a charter from the King. Had a rocky beginning - located in a swampy area, a lot of diseases prospered there, the first few crops they tried to grow failed, and they came into conflict with the local American Indians, the Powhatan Confederacy. Eventually, a peace was achieved, and the colony began to grow tobacco, which helped it prosper. To help with this, a lot of indentured servants were brought in, along with the first African slaves.
1676, Virginia frontiersman seeking land clashed with Native Americans; they demanded help from the government. Jamestown refused aid fearing Native American War. Bacon and his men lived on the frontier; Bacon and his men stormed Jamestown. Bacon Died of a fever and the rebellion collapsed.
King of England and Scotland, and Ireland (1625 to 1649). His power struggles with the parliament and resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and was beheaded in 1649. Son of James I.
King Phillips War
Colonial war against the French that lasted from 1689 to 1687; army from New England colonies attacked Quebec, but were forced to retreat because of the lack of strong colonial leadership and an outbreak of smallpox among colonial forces.
Connecticut's most prominent who, through his writings, helped all New Englanders define Congregational church policy. In 1963, as a result of his disagreement with Massachusetts Governor John Winthrop in how to govern, led a group of settlers to Hartford.
(1590-1657) Was a founder and longtime governor of the Plymouth colony settlement.
In 1660, he ascended the English Throne and created a string of new settlement, the restoration colonies. He was a generous but extravagant man who was always in debt.
The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina
adopted in March 1669 by the eight Lords Proprietor of which the province of Carolina, which included most of the land between what is now Virginia and Florida.
(General knowledge of)
a 17th century English philosopher whose works were very popular in colonial America. He wrote that the reason for government and constitution is to preserve the rights of free men to life, liberty, and property.
Indentured servitude of triangular trade
Africans were transported to the Americas, where they were traded for sugar and tobacco.
The slave trade refers to the importation of thousands of West Africans to Europe and the Americas. These slaves were to be put to work on agriculture fields and plantations.
Part: The middle passage refers to the aspect of the triangular trade in which the West African slaves being imported traveled on. The conditions were horrendous for they were tightly packed into the ships and many died from asphyxiation and disease during.
sole executors is a person or people who are named in the last will and testament to settle the deceased's estate
late 14th-18th century term for farmers who owned land (freehold, leasehold, or copyhold); they worked lands through primarily family labor and embodied the ideals of America: honest, virtuous, hardworking, and independent; were the republican vision of the new nation and were seen as the best kind of citizens to have political influence in a republic
slaves uprisings occasionally occurred. The most notable of uprising was Stono's rebellion, which was an occasion in which approximately 100 slaves killed many plantation owners before being executed themselves.
Last Colony to be founded
Georgia (1732). King Charles II granted James Oglethorpe a royal charter to establish a colony between Florida and South Carolina. Georgia was created to act as a barrier between Spain, which owned Florida, and the British colonies. It is also intended to provide a place for those recently released from depbtors prison to have a fresh start.
French West Indies
the territories under French rule in the Antilles islands of the Caribbean (Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint Martin, Saint Barthélemy, Les Saintes, Marie-Galante, La Désirade)
The mortality rate refers to the number of deaths per 1000 people.
the first official forms of an elected representative government founded in the American colonies
mercantilism was a belief/policy that most European countries and colonies followed that stated that how powerful a state was depended on it's wealth, so that they should constantly be trying to make themselves wealthier. It was also about the belief that resources are finite, and so the more that other countries have (In terms of wealth/power) the less you do.
(March 1733); a tax on imports of molasses from non-British colonies; its purpose was to make more money for Great Britain by controlling and restricting trade among its colonies; the British government wanted to force the American colonists to only buy molasses from the British West Indies rather than the French West Indies
a tariff is a tax
John Peter Zenger
Zenger was a printer in New York who most notably produced a paper titled the New York Weekly Journal, which called out the current governor for his corrupt activities. Since Zenger refused to name the author of the journal, or his sources, he was put on trial for libel, though he didn't write the pieces. He was actually found not guilty, as the jury believed he should no get in trouble for printing the truth. (This case set up an important precedent, and helped clear the way for future measures that protected the press, such as the First Amendment)
the action or crime of publishing a statement that is against the government; there were criminal offenses under English common law in the 17th and 18th century and was used as a way to control the power and stifle political opponents
also know as a deadlocked jury or an non-unanimous jury/verdict; a jury that does not agree upon a verdict after an extended discussion and is unable to change its vote
Passed in 1750, with the goal of encouraging the colonies to make iron and send it to England and simultaneously stop them from making it into products themselves. Partially successful, the act did increase the amount of iron exported, but not to the extent that was expected.
Passed in 1764 and repealed in 1773 in an effort to relieve tensions between Britain and the Colonies. Forbade the colonies from issuing their own money.
A charter colony is the approval for certain persons to establish a colony given by a company/ joint-stock company.
A royal colony is the approval for certain persons to establish a colony appointed by the Crown. They also elect a royal governor.
The Wool Act of 1699
The wool act of 1699 was during the time the Britain wished to strengthen their own economy by placing restrictions on the colonies so the prevented them from exporting wool anywhere but Britain.
Hat Act 1732
The hat act of 1732 is similar to the wool act of 1699 in that the colonies could not export hats to anywhere but England
King WIlliam's War
(1690-1697) Was due to a colonial conflict between England and France for power in North America. Mostly due to frontier and trading rights. The French and the Indians joined forces and attacked the new york colonies and In 1690 New York and New England Colonies joined together and planned an attack against the French in return. Sir William Phips was the one that took down Port Royal 1690. He was the commander of the New England fleet. It was retaken y the French however, in 1691. He attempted to take Quebec, due to loss of ammunition and a small pox rampant, they were forced to retreat, and Frontenac used this as a chance to amp up the security around Quebec. After all these failed attempts, the war still continued on for 7 more years. The war ended in 1697 with a treaty called Treaty of Ryswick. The borders of the territories previously claimed by New France, New England, and New York were to stay as they were before hostilities began.
Queen Anne's War
(1701-1714) The second of the four wars known generally as the French and Indian war, this war was aroused due to the unresolved problems that took place during King Williams war. It was part of the bigger problem known as the European conflict, which was also known as the Spanish war of succession. Britain allied with the Netherlands, and they defeated France and Spain so that they could gain territory in Canada. The most notable of these raids occurred at Deerfield, Massachusetts on February 29, 1704. French and Native American forces raided the city, killing 56 including 9 women and 25 children. They captured 109, marching them north to Canada. The war officially ended on April 11th, 1713 with the Treaty of Utrecht. Through this treaty, great Britain was offered Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. This treaty again, did nothing to resolve the problems between the French and great Britain and 3 years later they would be fighting in King Georges War.
The Stuarts were the first kings of the United Kingdom. The Stuart dynasty reigned in England and Scotland from 1603 to 1714. During this period there was a flourish in court culture but also much upheaval and instability of plagues and wars. Much intense religious debate happened throughout this time. There was a civil war in the mid seventeenth century between crown and parliament. The end of the Stuart line happened due to the death of queen Anne which was also followed up with the Act of Settlement in 1701. Stuart princesses still remained in the wings. It would linger for another century
In June of 1754, representatives from 7 different colonies met with 150 or so Iroquois Chiefs in Albany, New York. The purpose of the Albany congress was to try to secure the support and corporation of the Iroquois in fighting the French, and to form a colonial alliance based on a design by Benjamin Franklin. When the delegates returned to their colonies with the plan, not a single legislature would ratify it. It would have provided for coordinated taxation and militia forces to defend frontiers.
England was a relatively poor nation in the 1500s. The answer to its problems was a joint-stock venture, a earlier kind of todays corporations. Wealthy London gentlemen would buy a share in The Virginia Company, thus giving it the capital monies to start and supply to start a new colony. King James I granted The Virginia Company a royal charter in 1606. The company had the power to appoint a council of leaders in the colony, a governor and any other officials they wished to have. Since the mortality rate grew extremely fast. Tobacco saved the company for a little bit but it was already to late to fix it to the point of it being okay again. After the Indian massacre of 1622 it ended up killing hundreds of settlers and the king revoked their charter and they became an official royal company in 1624.
established the colony of Georgia in 1732.
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