In Hungary, when news of February Revolution in Paris is received - the Radical Party in the Hungarian Diet is aroused. Led by Kossuth who makes impassioned speech promoting virtues of liberty. This prompts working class insurrection supported by students in Vienna. Invasion of Imperial palace causes Metternich to flee - sought refuge in England. Leads to revolutionary movement throughout the Austrian empire, Germany and Italy and apparent collapse of number of the German states.
Hungarian leader of the Radical Party in the Diet. Made impassioned speech to Diet after hearing of the February Revolution in Paris. Promotes National Party - wanting combination of liberty and Hungarian nationalism.
Arroused by Kossuth's National Party, Hungarian Diet enacted these laws. Hungary to maintain complete constitutional separatism within the Austrian Empire while still recognizing the Habsburgs. Harassed Emperor Ferdinand into approving and he later granted the same laws to Bohemia and in Milan the Austrian garrison of troops was driven out. The whole structure of the Austrian Empire was thus falling into its component parts under the demand for liberal governments, national freedom and total end to serfdom.
June, 1848 - The first Pan-Slav Assembly takes place in the spirit of Slavic Revival. Czech historian, Palacky, was an active figure and very much opposed to being part of an all-German congress. However, was not necessarily anti-Austrian/Habsburgs. Majority were AustroSlavs. Held that Slavs pressed by Germans and Russians needed Austrian Empire as political framework in which to develop own national life. WANTED AUTONOMY WITHIN AUSTRIAN EMPIRE.
The Austrian Constitutional Assembly, first elected in 1848 in response to revolutionary movement, had moved to Kremsier in Bohemia where its members were working on writing a constitution for the whole empire. Might have worked because provided for extensive provincial autonomy while at same time granting local self -government in towns and villages to assure minority rights. Given the multi-ethnic nature of the empire, this was an important consideration. More sensible solution than anything else being suggested but Schwarzenberg would have none of it. March, 1849, he confiscated all copies of the draft document and dissolved the assembly. Emperor later granted a charter with none of the liberal features suggested by the Kremsier Constitution and, in any case, he later abrogated that charter too.
Syllabus of Errors
1864, by Pope Pius IX, the once "liberal" pope whose reforming minister was assassinated in 1848 during Mazzini's Republican revolt - causing the Pope to flee. When Pope returned to Rome after Mazzini's efforts failed, the gap between the Church and liberalism widened. Pope wrote this Syllabus of Errors in 1864 and in it warned all Catholics against liberalism and movements under the name of so-called progress and civilization.
Emperor Francis Joseph's (succeeded Ferdinand) chief minister. Opposed all forms of popular self-expression. Even more so than Metternich! Achieved repression of these movement with candid reliance on army. Constitutionalism and nationalism to be rooted out. Supported the Bach system.
Bach was Minister of Interior in Austrian Empire. Devised system to repress all nationalism within the empire (Slavism, magyarism, Italianism and Germanism). Tried to create a solid unitary system and used reforms in legal code, free trade for empire, a common external tariff, improvements in the infrastructure, etc. to do this. Goal was for people to forget liberalism because would be satisfied by efficiency and material progress. The liberal view of the Bach system was that it was nothing more than..."a standing army of soldiers, sitting army of officials, kneeling army of priests and a creeping army of informers."
Frederick William IV
Of Prussia. Inherited throne in 1840. At first thought to be liberal but in reality not willing to share power. But, govt was efficient and fair and progressive. Education surpassed any in Western Europe. Literacy was higher than in England and France. Economy continued in the mercantilist traditions - govt planning of economic life of nation. In 1818 a tariff union had been established -> improved commerce. In 1848 Frederick William IV allowed a Prussian assembly to meet. East Prussian radicals were anti-Russian. He thought that Tsar would ally with Junkers and prevent progress. Frederick William tolerated the experiment in liberalism but then changed mind easily and by end of 1848, the old authorities were in charge again. When FW offered the leadership of a German Empire, he declined saying he would not "pick up the crown from the gutter."
The tariff union of 1818 was extended by 1833/4 to include almost all of Germany. It was founded under Prussian auspices and then spread. It is thought by some to have been one of important forces that ultimately led to German political unity because it encouraged trade and commerce between the different German states and thus furthered communication and gradual recognition of cultural similarities as well as economic mutual self-interest.
Allowed by FW IV. Radical dominated. It granted local self-govt to Poles of w. Prussia and Posen (but German living there resisted and army crushed pro-Polish institutions). By end of 1848, in Prussia as in Austria, revolution was over.
Great Germans vs. Little Germans
What was the size of the new Germany to be? Great Germans thought is should include Austria except Hungary and crown should go to the Habsburgs. Little Germans thought it should exclude Austria and include smaller German states plus Prussia and crown should go to Prussia. This issue was major topic of debate at the Frankfurt Assembly in 1848 and '49.
Declaration of the Rights of the German People
Issued by the the failing Frankfurt Assembly in December 1848. Humanitarian, high-minded document like the American Declaration of Independence but spoke of Rights of Germans(not "man"). In the constitution issued by Frankfurt Assembly, Austria was not included -had declined to be a part of it. When FW IV declined to accept crown, work of Frankfurt Assembly declined in importance.
Thousands of disappointed German liberals left Germany after the failed revolutions of 1848 and many moved to the United States where given this name. Brought, in addition to a ripple of revolutionary agitation, stream of professional and craft oriented immigrants to U.S.
Humiliation of Olmutz
In March of 1849, Frankfurt National Assembly had drafted a constitution and voted to offer the imperial crown to Frederick William IV who declined it and attempted to form Prussian dominated federation of North German States. Austria opposed this and threatened force. Prussia gave way in this Humiliation of Olmutz of November, 1850. Austrians therefore re-established the German Confederation that had existed since Congress of Vienna.
Ethnic group in Hungary. They were led by Kossuth in '48. They were triumphant in March Days. They shook off German connection. They moved from Pressburg to Budapest as their capital. They changed official language from Latin to Magyar. But less than half of Hungary was Magyar - this therefore alienated many. Slovaks, Romanian, German, Serbs, Croats, etc. resisted Magyar domination.
Along with Garibaldi, proclaimed establishment of Roman Republic In Papal States in February of 1849. Pope fled. Meanwhile Piedmont was at war with Austria. Roman Republic would be short-lived and pope restored by intervention of French.
Once liberal pope (1846) who was forced out of Rome by Mazzini when he established the Roman Republic. He was restored by the intervention of the French army (Louis Napoleon trying to curry favor with Catholics). Pope subsequently becomes much more conservative and in 1864 wrote Syllabus of Errors.
May 1848 to May 1849. Sat in Frankfurt on Main River. Trying to bring about a unified Germany with liberal constitution, civil rights, free elections, parliamentary debate, etc. FAILED - big impact on modern times that it did not succeed. The Frankfurt Assembly had its potential to begin with because the collapse of existing govts during the March Days of 1848. Problems were surrendering sovereignty of individual parts and then also the tension between Prussia and Austria. This was the essential dualism of Germany, i.e. the Berlin - Vienna tug of influence and power. It really wasn't an issue of radical versus middle class elements. The goal was liberal, self-governing and federally unified Germany that would be democratic but NOT equalitarian/socialist.
Was the liberal king of Sardinia(Sardiana Piedmont/Savoy). Had helped independence movement in Lombardy-Venetia earlier in '48 but movement had failed. Helped again in Lombardy in '49 but that too failed. (Been defeated in first conflict by Radetsky at Custozza, July 25 and in second conflict at Battle of Novara. ) Had willingly granted his people a liberal constitution. Gave Sardinia-Piedmont liberal traditions. BUT abdicated in favor of his son , Victor Emmanuel II after Austrian defeat.
Emperor of Austria at time of '48 revolutions. Resisted liberalism and nationalism under advise of Metternich. But Metternich had fled in March Days and Ferdinand made promises to liberalize. When counterrevolutionaries regained power in October, leaders thought it best to replace Ferdinand since he had appeared weak in face of liberal/nationalist opposition. Successor, Francis Joseph, became emperor.
The "ban" or provincial governor of Croats. Under Magyar domination in Hungary he led civil war. Led force of Serbs and Croats and non-Magyars. Emperor Ferdinand made him military commander versus Magyars. Hungary dissolved into "war of all against all." (More perceptive radicals in Vienna saw that, if successful, Jellachich might be brought against them and so rose in second mass insurrection in October of 1848.)