58 terms

Human Geo Vocab Check 2

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quantitative data
defines (numbers, statistics)
qualitative data
describes; shows characteristics, approximates, and descriptions
map scale
distance on a map relative to the distance on Earth
small scale map
large area, small detail
large scale map
small area, large detail
time zone map
show the different time zones
reference map
shows locations of places as well as human and geographic features
physical map
highlights naturally occurring features
political map
highlights man-made features
thematic map
shows one theme
statistical map
thematic map that shows different levels of variation
choropleth map
uses shading to show different levels of data
dot/pin dot map
each dot represents a number of occurrences
graduated symbol map
uses a symbol to show frequency or intensity of a variable
isoline map
connects points of equal value to make lines on a map
cartogram
shows size using data other than area
flow line map
shows movement with arrows of different size
mental/perceptual map
images of places we form based on our experiences and perceptions
lines of latitude
run east to west
parallels
lines of lattitude
Equator
0 degrees lattitude
90 degrees
highest number of lattitude
lines of longitude
run north to south
meridians
lines of longitude
Prime Meridian
0 degrees longitude
180 degrees
highest number of longitude
90 degrees North
North Pole
66.5 degrees North
Arctic Circle
23.5 degrees North
Tropic of Cancer
23.5 degrees South
Tropic of Capricorn
66.5 degrees South
Antarctic Circle
90 degrees South
South Pole
International Date Line
a line that when you cross it, it is either a day earlier or a day later due to time zones
map projection
a way to make a flat representation of the Earth
cylindrical/Mercator projection
-lines of latitude and longitude intersect at 90 degrees
-landmasses are not depicted accurately the farther from the Equator they are
-direction isn't always accurate
-used to map ocean routes
Conic projection
-most accurate in showing middle latitude
-usually used for national or regional maps of mid-latitude areas
-shapes are shown correctly, but size is distorted
plane/polar/azimuthal projection
-accurate at the point the projection touches the map
-shape distorted at the edge of the projection
-used by pilots to form Great Circle Routes
Great Circle Routes
lines created when you cut the globe in half connecting two points
Peters Projection
considered politically correct because it treats every country fairly by representing area accurately
Equal Area Map
size is correct but other properties are distorted
Conformal Map
shape is correct but other properties are distorted
geographic information systems (GIS)
a database geographers use to create maps with "data layers"; allow geographers to look at phenomena and data spatially
Global Positioning System (GPS)
satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places or geographic features
remote sensing
gathering information on the earth's surface from a distance by using airplanes but mainly satellites
satellite imagery
useful for gathering some types of information
online mapping and visualization
using the Internet as a tool allows for powerful map-making possibilities
Five Themes of Geography
give us a way to look at the world spatially
Location
position of something on the earth's surface; where?
Absolute Location
exact location on the earth using latitude and longitude, a grid system, or an address
Relative Location
location of a place by comparing it to another location; how important a place is
Place
what physical and human characteristics can I see at a location?
Region
how are places similar?
formal/uniform region
an area defined by a limited number of related characteristics
functional/nodal region
an area created by movement around a central hub or node
perceptual/vernacular region
a region based on how an individual perceives a region; exists in a person's mind
Wilbur Zelinsky
a cultural geographer that used names of people and businesses to map perceptual regions of the US
Human-Environmental Interaction
humans depend on, adapt to, and modify their physical environment for basic needs
Movement
how and why do people, goods, and ideas move?
what changes resulted in the movement?