World History Chapter 2
"Early River Valley Civilizations, 3500 B.C. - 450 B.C." (The Four River Civilizations)
Terms in this set (32)
A crescent shaped area of fertile land that encompasses Mesopotamia, and land next to the Mediterranean Sea down to Egypt and the Nile River valley.
This is a city which acts as an independent country, with its own government and ruling body. Ur, in Sumer, is said to be the first city-state to have ever developed.
When a ruling family passes the power down from father to son in a long succession.
When a new idea or object is spread from one culture to another.
When a culture or person believes in more than one god.
This is created when a single ruler brings together a number of people, nations, and previously independent states under their control.
A Babylonian ruler who reigned from 1792 B.C. to 1750 B.C.and created some of the first codes of law ever developed.
This is a broad, marshy, triangular area of land formed by silt deposits, at the mouth of a river.
He is the Egyptian king who is credited with bringing about the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt into one Kingdom, around 3000 B.C. He started the first Egyptian dynasty and founded his capital at Memphis.
This was the title given to the rulers of Egypt who were thought to be gods in their own right.
When the ruler of a country, or empire, has absolute religious authority, and/or rules as a god.
These were the huge tombs, or burial places, for the pharaoh's of ancient Egypt. They believed that a person lived on after death and so they wanted their tombs to be a palace where they could live out eternity.
This was done to the bodies of high ranking Egyptians who wished to have their bodies preserved for all time. A body was embalmed and dried to keep it from decaying and then wrapped and placed in a sarcophagus, or coffin.
Meaning 'sacred carving' in Greek, it was the Egyptian form of writing, using pictographs to represent ideas and sounds.
This was an early form of paper made by the Egyptions, from reeds found in marshy areas.
He was a great Akkadian leader who ruled from 2334 B.C. to 2279 B.C. He was able to conquer the Sumerians, and other people groups in the area in order to establish the Akkadian empire.
This was the first group of people to form a large civilization with advanced cities, with a ruling dynasty based in their capital of Ur.
He is believed to have been a Sumerian King of the city-state Uruk, around 2700 B.C. Many epic tales have been written about him, making him out to be a mighty warrior.
A Mesopotamian city-state which became a mighty empire under the leadership of Hammurabi.
Believed to be the first form of writing, which was created by Sumerian scribes.
The rocky or ruff part of a river that makes it impassable by boats.
This is the use of pictures to represent words, and was the first form of writing used before more complex systems were created.
Upper and Lower Egypt
These were once two separate kingdoms, in what would become known as Egypt, until they were united under one pharaoh. The pharaoh Narmer is usually accredited with the unification of Egypt.
This was the site of one of the first advanced civilizations. Meaning 'Land between the rivers' in Greek, it encompasses the area between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.
Pharaoh who ruled from 1279 to 1213 and pushed Egyptian control northward into Syria. He boasted of his conquests on temples and monuments.
a flat, black stone that presents the same passages carved in hieroglyphics, demotic script, and Greek. This stone helped scholars decipher ancient Egyptian writing.
a system of government that includes departments and levels of authority
Egypt's first female ruler that exercised all the rights of a pharaoh. She is believed to have been murdered by her stepson.
Hatshepsut's stepson who took over as pharaoh when he reached adulthood. He was a great military leader who stretched Egypt's borders to their greatest extent ever.
triangular area of marshland formed by deposits of silt at the mouth of some rivers
Babylonian leader who restored the Babylonian Empire after its fall to the Syrians. He is famous for having rebuilt the walls and the Hanging Gardens for his wife.
Persian thinker who lived about 600 B.C. He rejected the old Persian gods and taught that a single wise god, Ahura Mazda, ruled the world. Ahura Mazda was in constant battle against Ahriman, the prince of lies and evil. Each individual would have to choose which side to support. Christians, Jews, and Muslims would later stress similar ideas on heaven, hell, and final judgment.