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AP US History I - Chapter 13
Terms in this set (55)
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification
United States politician responsible for the Missouri Compromise between free and slave states (1777-1852)
Martin van Buren
Served as secretary of state during Andrew Jackson's first term, vice president during Jackson's second term, and won the presidency in 1836
was Sec. of Treasury under James Monroe Presidency; and a canidate for Presidency in 1824 he represented the south in this election
John Quincy Adams
Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.
Senator who, originally pro-North, supported the Compromise of 1850 and subsequently lost favor from his constituency
President of the Second Bank of the United States; he struggled to keep the bank functioning when President Jackson tried to destroy it.
Seminole leader who resisted the removal of his people from Florida in the 1830s. He died under suspicious circumstances after being tricked into surrendering (1837).
Original settler of Texas, granted land from Mexico on condition of no slaves, convert to Roman Catholic, and learn Spanish
was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.
United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863)
elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died (1790-1862)
Mexican general who tried to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War (1795-1876)
Sauk leader who in 1832 led Fox and Sauk warriors against the United States (1767-1838)
commanded the garrison at the Alamo; important in rallying the men to continue fighting
United States freed slave and insurrectionist in South Carolina who was involved in planning an uprising of slaves and was hanged (1767-1822)
the formal act of acquiring something (especially territory) by conquest or occupation
adj. Opposed to human slavery.
a politician favored mainly in his or her home state
The "average" American citizen, whose concerns are represented in government.
the act of nullifying, the states'-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
rotation in office
Jackson's system of periodically replacing officeholders to allow ordinary citizens to play a more prominent role in government
name given to speculative Western banks
a hypothesis that has been formed by speculating or conjecturing (usually with little hard evidence)
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
a candidate who fails to win a majority of popular votes and yet wins the Presidency
supporters of a strong central government who favored road building and supported the Bank of the United States to shape the nation's economy; many were farmers or merchants
a 19th century minor political party in the United States. It strongly opposed Freemasonry, and was founded as a single-issue party, aspiring to become a major party
revolution of 1828
Jackson's election showed shift of political power to "the common man" (1828)
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
Nickname for all the new participants in government that came with Jackson's presidency. This nickname was negative and proposed that Jackson believed in too much democracy, perhaps leading to anarchy
In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.
Tariff of Abominations
Tariff passed by Congress in 1828 that favored manufacturing in the North and was hated by the South
South Carolina Exposition
written by John C. Calhoun denouncing the 1828 Tariff as unconstitutional and that the states should declare it null and void
Tariff of 1832
a tariff imposed by Jackson which was unpopular in the South; South Carolina nullified it, but Jackson pushed through the Force Act, which enabled him to make South Carolina comply through force; Henry Clay reworked the tariff so that South Carolina would accept it, but after accepting it, South Carolina also nullified the Force Act
issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
Term the North used to describe the Slaveholding South and its "schemes" to gain more slave-land.
Tariff of 1833
(AJ) set up by henry clay, it was a way to prevent jackson from victory. clay aptly deserves his title as the great comprimiser. it allowed for the tariff of 1832, with a 10 percent decrease every year for 10 years, when the tariff rate would be back to where it was in 1816. it was squezed through congress.
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
They lived in Florida as runaways from other tribes. They waged a seven years war against the Americans to try and remain in the east instead of being forcibly removed to the west.
A bill passed by Van Buren in 1837, that divorced the government from banking altogether, and established an independent treasury, so the governemtn could lock its money in vaults in several of the larger cities.
Bank of the United States
a national bank funded by the federal government and wealthy investors
Texas declared independence in 1836 and Houston forced signed treaty with Santa Ana in 1836
President Van Buren's plan to keep government funds in its own vualts and do business entirely in hard money rather than keep them in depostits within shaky banks.
the older of two major political parties in the United States
State banks where Andrew Jackson placed deposits removed from the federal National Bank.
a former political party in the United States formed because of Andrew Jackson
Indian Removal Act
Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.
Five Civilized Tribes
collective name for the Creeks, Choctaws, Cherokees, Chickasaws and Seminoles
South Carolina Party that wanted to nullify the tariff
primarily the Orange Protestants in the north, who supported the Act of Union
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