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Individuals with panic disorder are effectively treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).


Schizophrenia is believed to develop as a result of neurodevelopmental defects occurring during fetal life.


People with schizophrenia commonly experience incoherent speech, delusions, and hallucinations during a psychotic episode.


The dopamine hypothesis suggests a depletion of dopaminergic transmission contributes to the onset of schizophrenia.


Mania is the most common mood disorder.


Exposure to a terrifying event may result in an onset of generalized anxiety disorder.


Loci on chromosomes 18 and 22 have been linked to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.


In schizophrenia, the lateral and third ventricles of the brain are smaller than normal.


People with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who have been exposed to trauma-related stimuli generally exhibit increased activation of the amygdala and diminished activity in some prefrontal cortical areas.


Approximately 50% of individuals with major depression will experience a manic episode.


Which is a positive symptom of schizophrenia?


Prenatal and perinatal factors that result in the onset of schizophrenia include:

viral infection

Which neurotransmitter is reduced in people with schizophrenia?

Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)

Alterations in which part of the brain are linked to hallucinations, delusions, and thought disorders associated with schizophrenia?

Temporal lobe

Which neurotransmitter receptors are blocked by antipsychotic drugs?


What data confers the link between bipolar disorders and schizophrenia?

Bipolar individuals who exhibit psychotic behaviors have deficits in Reelin expression linked to genetic loci located on chromosome 22

What percentage of individuals experiencing depression will also experience a manic episode?


Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system abnormalities exist in a large percentage of individuals with:

major depression.

What is the common property among the three types of medications used to treat depression?

They increase neurotransmitter levels within the synapse.

What is the link between major depression and cortisol secretion?

Individuals with depression continue to exhibit elevated plasma cortisol levels throughout the evening and early morning.

Which hormone facilitates the effects of antidepressants drugs in about 25% of patients who do not respond to usual antidepressant medications?

1-triiodothyronine (T3)

Twenty to thirty percent of individuals with depression have dysregulated:

thyroid function.

A decrease in receptor binding for which neurotransmitter is found in depressed individuals?


What is thought to be the alteration produced by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) when treating individuals with depression?

It produces an alteration in the monoamine systems.

Which electrolyte imbalance contributes to lithium toxicity?


Which neurotransmitter is inhibited in panic disorders?

Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)

Which neurotransmitter is inhibited in generalized anxiety disorders (GAD)?

Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)

General anxiety disorder is diagnosed when a person spends _____ months worrying excessively.


What are the most common side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)?

Sleep disturbances and nausea

Individuals who eat cheese, sour cream, liver, and avocado when taking MAOIs may experience:

hypertensive crisis.

Electroconvulsive therapy is used to treat depression:

in pregnant women.

What is a notable complication in panic disorder?


Persistent symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder include:

difficulty sleeping.

Hallucinations, delusions, thought disorder, and bizarre behavior occurs with alterations in the:

temporal lobe.

Perceptions are experienced without external stimulation of the sense organs


Persistent beliefs are contrary to educational and cultural background


Fluent speech that is difficult to comprehend

Formal thought disorder

Absence of spontaneous speech


5. Inability to have emotional experiences


6. Characterized by a deficit in spontaneous or goal-directed activities


Characterized by elevated levels of euphoria


Involves psychotic episodes


Repetitive, intrusive thoughts

Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Unremitting feeling of sadness and despair


Intensive autonomic arousal including lightheadedness, dyspnea, generalized sweating, and racing heart

Panic disorder

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