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state of maleness or femaleness

Gender Roles

a set of expected behaviors for males and females

Gender Identity

one's sense of being male or female


mismatch in which one's gender identity is inconsistent with one's chromosomal and anatomic sex

Gender-Schema Theory

theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly


type of gender-role identification that characterizes people who possess high levels of both masculine and feminine traits


learning disorder characterized by impaired ability to read

Health Psychology

subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine


pressure or demand placed on an organism to adjust or adapt


state of emotional or physical suffering, discomfort, or pain


sources of stress


annoyances of daily life that impose a stressful burden

Chronic Stress

continuing or persistent stress


negative emotional state experienced when one's efforts to pursue one's goals are thwarted


state of tension brought about by opposing motives operating simultaneously

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

disorder in which one relives painfully stressful events

Type A Behavior Pattern

Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people

Acculturative Stress

demands faced by immigrants in adjusting to a host culture

General Adaptation Syndrome

Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three stages

Alarm Reaction

mobilize resources [first stage of GAS]

Fight-Or-Flight Response

body's built in alarm system that allows it to quickly mobilize its resources to either fight or flee when faced with a threatening stressor

Resistance Stage

second stage of GAS, cope with stressor

Exhaustion Stage

final stage of GAS, depletion of bodily resources and lowered resistance to stress

Corticotrophin-Releasing Hormone

hormone released by the hypothalamus that induces the pituitary gland to release adrenocorticotrophic hormone

Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone

pituitary hormone that activates the adrenal cortex to relesase corticosteriods

Adrenal Glands

part of endocrine glands located just above the kidneys that produce various stress-related hormones

Adrenal Cortex

the outer layer of the adrenal glands that secretes corticosteriods

Corticosteriods [Cortical Steriods]

adrenal hormones that increase the body

Adrenal Medulla

inner part of the adrenal glands that secretes the stress hormones epinephrine [adrenaline] and norepinephrine [nonadrenaline]

Immune System

body's system of defense against disease


substances, such as bacteria and virsuses, that are recognized by the immune system as foreign to the body and that induce it to produce antibodies to defend against them


white blood cells that protect the body against disease-causing organisms


protein molecules produced by the immune system that serve to make antigens for destruction by specialized lymphocytes


method of acquiring immunity by means of injecting a weakened or partial form of an infectious agent that can induce production of antibodies but does not produce a full-blown infection

Psychological Hardiness

cluster of traits [commitment, openness to challenge, internal locus of control] that may buffer the effects of stress


state of physical and mental fatigue caused by excessive stress relating to work or other commitments


an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

Psychoanalytic Theory

Freud's theory of personality that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts


part of the mind corresponding to the state of present awareness


the part of the mind whose contents can be brought into awareness through focused attention


a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories


the repository of the basic urges toward sex and agression


the mediator between the demands of the id and the superego


the part of the personality in Freud's theory that is responsible for making moral choices

Pleasure Principle

governing principle of the id that is based on demand for instant gratification without regard to social rules and customs

Reality Principle

governing principle of the ego that takes into account what is practical and acceptable satisfying basic needs

Defense Mechanisms

the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality


the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness


failure to recognize a threatening impulse or urge

Reaction Formation

defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites


defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions


defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others


channeling of unacceptable impulses into socially sanctioned behaviors or interests


defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated


defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person

Erogenous Zones

parts of the body that are especially sensitive to sexual or pleasurable stimulation


a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, where conflicts were unresolved

Oral Stage

Freud's first stage of psychosexual development during which pleasure is centered in the mouth

Anal Stage

Freud's pychosexual period during which a child learns to control his bodily excretions

Anal-Retentive Personality

personality type characterized by perfectionism and excessive needs for self-control as expressed through extreme neatness and punctuality

Anal-Expulsive Personality

personality type characterized by messiness, lack of self discipline, and carelessness

Phallic Stage

name for Freud's stage which features the Oedipus stage, pleasure zone is the genitals

Oedipus Complex

a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father

Electra Complex

term given by some psychodynamic theorists to the form of the oedipus complex in girls

Castration Anxiety

unconscious fear of removal of the penis as punishment for having unacceptable sexual impulses

Penis Envy

jealousy of boys having a penis

Latency Stage

Freud's stage of psychosexual development occuring from about age 6 to puberty during which little happens

Genital Stage

Freud's stage of psychosexual development when adult sexuality is prominent

Personal Unconscious

[Jung] unconscious region of mind comprising a reservoir of the individuals repressed memories and impulses

Collective Unconscious

[Jung] part of the mind containing ideas and archetypal images shared among humankind that have been transmitted genetically from ancestral humans


[Jung] primitive images contained in the collective unconscious that reflects ancestral or universal experiences of human beings

Individual Psychology

Adler's theory of psych, which emphasized the unique potential of each individual

Creative Self

Adler, self aware part of personality that organizes goal-seeking efforts

Inferiority Complex

Adler's conception of a basic feeling of inadequacy stemming from childhood experiences

Drive For Superiority

Adler, term for motivation to compensate to feelings of inferiority will-to-power

Basic Anxiety

Horney, deep seated form of anxiety in children that is associated with feelings of being isolated and helpless in a word perceived as potentially threatening and hostile

Basic Hostility

Horney, deep feelings of resentment that children may harbor toward their parents


relatively enduring personal characteristics

Cardinal Traits

Allport, more pervasive dimensions that define an individual's general personality

Central Traits

Allport, personality characteristics that have a widespread influence on the individual

Secondary Traits

Allport, specific traits that influence behavior in relatively few situations

Surface Traits

Cattell, personality traits at the surface level that can be gleaned from observations of behavior

Source Traits

Cattell, traits at a deep level of personality that are not apparent in being observed behavior but must be inferred based on underlying relationships among surface traits


Eysenck's Model, referring to tendencies toward being solitary and reserved on the one end or outgoing on the other end


Eysenck's Model, referring to tendencies toward emotional instability, anxiety, and worry


Eysenck's Model, referring to tendencies to be percieved as cold and anti-social

Five-Factor Model

openness to new experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism

Social-Cognitive Theory

views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons and their social context


in social-cognitive theory, personal predictions about the outcomes of behavior

Subjective Value

in social-cognitive theory, the importance that individuals place on desired outcomes

Locus Of Control

Rotter's theory, one's general expectancies about whether one's efforts can bring about desired outcomes or reinforcements

Reciprocal Determinism

the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors

Outcome Expectations

Bandura, for our personal predictions about the outcomes of our behavior

Efficacy Expectations

Bandura, expectancies we have regarding our ability to perform behaviors we set out to accomplish

Situation Variables

Mischel, environmental influences on behavior, such as rewards and punishments

Person Variables

Mischel, internal personal factors that influence behavior including competencies, expectancies, and subjective values


Roger's model of personality, which focuses on the importance of the self

Unconditional Positive Regard

an attitude of total acceptance toward another person

Conditional Positive Regard

valuing a person only when the person's behavior meets certain expectations or standards


Roger's term for the idealized sense of how or what we should be

Collectivistic Culture

culture that emphasizes people's social roles and obligations

Indiviualistic Culture

culture that emphasizes individual identity and personal accomplishments


now-discredited view that one can judge a person's character and mental abilities by measuring the bumps on his or her head

Personality Tests

structured psychological tests that use formal methods of assessing personality

Self-Report Personality Inventories

structured psychological tests in which individuals are given a limited range of response options to answer a set of questions about themselves

Objective Tests

tests of personality that can be scored objectively and that are based on a research foundation

Standard Scores

scores that represent and individual's relative deviation from the mean of the standardization sample

Projective Tests

a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics

Type B Behavior

Friedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes

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