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110 terms

AP Psych: Gender, Stress, Personality

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Gender
state of maleness or femaleness
Gender Roles
a set of expected behaviors for males and females
Gender Identity
one's sense of being male or female
Transsexualism
mismatch in which one's gender identity is inconsistent with one's chromosomal and anatomic sex
Gender-Schema Theory
theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly
Androgyny
type of gender-role identification that characterizes people who possess high levels of both masculine and feminine traits
Dyslexia
learning disorder characterized by impaired ability to read
Health Psychology
subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine
Stress
pressure or demand placed on an organism to adjust or adapt
Distress
state of emotional or physical suffering, discomfort, or pain
Stressors
sources of stress
Hassles
annoyances of daily life that impose a stressful burden
Chronic Stress
continuing or persistent stress
Frustration
negative emotional state experienced when one's efforts to pursue one's goals are thwarted
Conflict
state of tension brought about by opposing motives operating simultaneously
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
disorder in which one relives painfully stressful events
Type A Behavior Pattern
Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people
Acculturative Stress
demands faced by immigrants in adjusting to a host culture
General Adaptation Syndrome
Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three stages
Alarm Reaction
mobilize resources [first stage of GAS]
Fight-Or-Flight Response
body's built in alarm system that allows it to quickly mobilize its resources to either fight or flee when faced with a threatening stressor
Resistance Stage
second stage of GAS, cope with stressor
Exhaustion Stage
final stage of GAS, depletion of bodily resources and lowered resistance to stress
Corticotrophin-Releasing Hormone
hormone released by the hypothalamus that induces the pituitary gland to release adrenocorticotrophic hormone
Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone
pituitary hormone that activates the adrenal cortex to relesase corticosteriods
Adrenal Glands
part of endocrine glands located just above the kidneys that produce various stress-related hormones
Adrenal Cortex
the outer layer of the adrenal glands that secretes corticosteriods
Corticosteriods [Cortical Steriods]
adrenal hormones that increase the body
Adrenal Medulla
inner part of the adrenal glands that secretes the stress hormones epinephrine [adrenaline] and norepinephrine [nonadrenaline]
Immune System
body's system of defense against disease
Antigens
substances, such as bacteria and virsuses, that are recognized by the immune system as foreign to the body and that induce it to produce antibodies to defend against them
Lymphocytes
white blood cells that protect the body against disease-causing organisms
Antibodies
protein molecules produced by the immune system that serve to make antigens for destruction by specialized lymphocytes
Vaccination
method of acquiring immunity by means of injecting a weakened or partial form of an infectious agent that can induce production of antibodies but does not produce a full-blown infection
Psychological Hardiness
cluster of traits [commitment, openness to challenge, internal locus of control] that may buffer the effects of stress
Burnout
state of physical and mental fatigue caused by excessive stress relating to work or other commitments
Personality
an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
Psychoanalytic Theory
Freud's theory of personality that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts
Conscious
part of the mind corresponding to the state of present awareness
Preconscious
the part of the mind whose contents can be brought into awareness through focused attention
Unconscious
a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories
Id
the repository of the basic urges toward sex and agression
Ego
the mediator between the demands of the id and the superego
Superego
the part of the personality in Freud's theory that is responsible for making moral choices
Pleasure Principle
governing principle of the id that is based on demand for instant gratification without regard to social rules and customs
Reality Principle
governing principle of the ego that takes into account what is practical and acceptable satisfying basic needs
Defense Mechanisms
the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
Repression
the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
Denial
failure to recognize a threatening impulse or urge
Reaction Formation
defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites
Rationalization
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
Projection
defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
Sublimation
channeling of unacceptable impulses into socially sanctioned behaviors or interests
Regression
defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
Displacement
defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person
Erogenous Zones
parts of the body that are especially sensitive to sexual or pleasurable stimulation
Fixations
a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, where conflicts were unresolved
Oral Stage
Freud's first stage of psychosexual development during which pleasure is centered in the mouth
Anal Stage
Freud's pychosexual period during which a child learns to control his bodily excretions
Anal-Retentive Personality
personality type characterized by perfectionism and excessive needs for self-control as expressed through extreme neatness and punctuality
Anal-Expulsive Personality
personality type characterized by messiness, lack of self discipline, and carelessness
Phallic Stage
name for Freud's stage which features the Oedipus stage, pleasure zone is the genitals
Oedipus Complex
a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
Electra Complex
term given by some psychodynamic theorists to the form of the oedipus complex in girls
Castration Anxiety
unconscious fear of removal of the penis as punishment for having unacceptable sexual impulses
Penis Envy
jealousy of boys having a penis
Latency Stage
Freud's stage of psychosexual development occuring from about age 6 to puberty during which little happens
Genital Stage
Freud's stage of psychosexual development when adult sexuality is prominent
Personal Unconscious
[Jung] unconscious region of mind comprising a reservoir of the individuals repressed memories and impulses
Collective Unconscious
[Jung] part of the mind containing ideas and archetypal images shared among humankind that have been transmitted genetically from ancestral humans
Archetypes
[Jung] primitive images contained in the collective unconscious that reflects ancestral or universal experiences of human beings
Individual Psychology
Adler's theory of psych, which emphasized the unique potential of each individual
Creative Self
Adler, self aware part of personality that organizes goal-seeking efforts
Inferiority Complex
Adler's conception of a basic feeling of inadequacy stemming from childhood experiences
Drive For Superiority
Adler, term for motivation to compensate to feelings of inferiority will-to-power
Basic Anxiety
Horney, deep seated form of anxiety in children that is associated with feelings of being isolated and helpless in a word perceived as potentially threatening and hostile
Basic Hostility
Horney, deep feelings of resentment that children may harbor toward their parents
Traits
relatively enduring personal characteristics
Cardinal Traits
Allport, more pervasive dimensions that define an individual's general personality
Central Traits
Allport, personality characteristics that have a widespread influence on the individual
Secondary Traits
Allport, specific traits that influence behavior in relatively few situations
Surface Traits
Cattell, personality traits at the surface level that can be gleaned from observations of behavior
Source Traits
Cattell, traits at a deep level of personality that are not apparent in being observed behavior but must be inferred based on underlying relationships among surface traits
Introversion-Extraversion
Eysenck's Model, referring to tendencies toward being solitary and reserved on the one end or outgoing on the other end
Neuroticism
Eysenck's Model, referring to tendencies toward emotional instability, anxiety, and worry
Psychoticism
Eysenck's Model, referring to tendencies to be percieved as cold and anti-social
Five-Factor Model
openness to new experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
Social-Cognitive Theory
views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons and their social context
Expectancies
in social-cognitive theory, personal predictions about the outcomes of behavior
Subjective Value
in social-cognitive theory, the importance that individuals place on desired outcomes
Locus Of Control
Rotter's theory, one's general expectancies about whether one's efforts can bring about desired outcomes or reinforcements
Reciprocal Determinism
the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors
Outcome Expectations
Bandura, for our personal predictions about the outcomes of our behavior
Efficacy Expectations
Bandura, expectancies we have regarding our ability to perform behaviors we set out to accomplish
Situation Variables
Mischel, environmental influences on behavior, such as rewards and punishments
Person Variables
Mischel, internal personal factors that influence behavior including competencies, expectancies, and subjective values
Self-Theory
Roger's model of personality, which focuses on the importance of the self
Unconditional Positive Regard
an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
Conditional Positive Regard
valuing a person only when the person's behavior meets certain expectations or standards
Self-Ideals
Roger's term for the idealized sense of how or what we should be
Collectivistic Culture
culture that emphasizes people's social roles and obligations
Indiviualistic Culture
culture that emphasizes individual identity and personal accomplishments
Phrenology
now-discredited view that one can judge a person's character and mental abilities by measuring the bumps on his or her head
Personality Tests
structured psychological tests that use formal methods of assessing personality
Self-Report Personality Inventories
structured psychological tests in which individuals are given a limited range of response options to answer a set of questions about themselves
Objective Tests
tests of personality that can be scored objectively and that are based on a research foundation
Standard Scores
scores that represent and individual's relative deviation from the mean of the standardization sample
Projective Tests
a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
Type B Behavior
Friedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes