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59 terms

Chapter 9: Erosion and Deposition

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Process in which naturall forces move rock and soil from one place to another.
Erosion
Material moved by erosion
What is Sediment?
Occurs when agents of erosion spread sediment
What is Deposition?
Movements of Land Mass
Gravity, Landslides, Mudflows, Slump and Creep
Force which moves sediment downhill
What is Gravity?
Rapid downhill mixture of rock, water and soil
What is Mudflows?
What is it when water soaks at the bottomof soil and rich clay?
What is Slump?
What is it called when there is a very slow downhill movement of rock and soil?
What is Creep?
Water that moves over Earth's surface
What is Runoff?
The amount of runoff depends on what?
Amount of rain, vegetation, type of soil, shape of land and how land is used.
what are rills?
when runoff travels and leaves tiny grooves in the soil.
what is a gully?
A large groove or channel caused by storm water runoff.
What is a stream?
A channel where water continuously flows.
What is a river?
A large stream.
Tributaries
A stream or river which flows in a larger river.
Waterfall
May occur when a river meets an area of rock that is very hard,erodes slowly, and erodes soft rock below.
Flood Plain
Flat, wide area of land along a river.
Meander
Loop like bend in the course of a river.
Oxbow Lakes
A meander that has been cut off from a river.
Alluvial Fans
Wide, sloping deposit of sediment.
Deltas
Sediment deposited where a river flows into an ocean or lake and builds up.
Soil and Flood Plains
These depositions also occur during floods.
Groundwater Erosion
Term used for underground water, changing the shape of the land.
Stalactite
Cone shape caused by water dripping from the roof of a cave.
Stalagmite
Cone shape on cave floor, cause by Stalactite.
Karst Topography
Sinkhole Landscape.
Energy
Ability to work or cause change.
Load
Amount of sediment carried by water.
Sediment
Erodes from sides and bottom of river, because of water moving past the surface.
Abrasion
Wearing away of rock.
Slope
Water speed changes depending on slope of the land.
Volume of Flow
Amount of water that flows past a point in a given time.
Friction
Force that opposes the motion of another surface.
What factors affect erosion and deposition?
The direction and speed the water flows.
Explain a streambed shape
Friction which is a force that opposes the motion of another surface.
List 4 things regarding Erosion and Sediment Load
Slope, volume of flow, Streambed Shape
How do glaciers form?
They can only form in an area where snow falls and then melts. Once snow gets to 30-40 meters, gravity pulls it down and it freezes.
What are continental glaciers?
They cover most of a continent or large island.
What are valley glaciers?
Long narrow glaciers that forms when snow and ice build up in valleys.
How do glaciers shape the land?
Plucking, glacial erosion and glacial deposition
what is plucking?
when a glacier flows over land and picks up sediment
what is glacial erosion?
plucking and picking up loose sediment
Explain glacial deposition?
Till, moraine and kettle
What is till?
mix of sediment on surface
what is moraine?
till forms on edge at the end of glacier called a moraine
what is kettle?
small deposition from till
how does a wave form?
energy comes from wind that blows across water's surface
How do waves erode?
when waves create impact with the sore of the beach, th water can erode and carry off sediment
what is headland?
part of shore that sticks out in the ocean.
How are landforms created by wave erosion?
water can erode landforms and affect them. The sediment carried by the waves may create a new landform.
What are beaches?
area of wave washed sediment
what are spits?
beach that projects like a finger.
What is a sandbar?
A ridge of sand built up by the action of waves and currents.
What are barrier beaches?
occurs when storms carry sand and form landforms above sea level.
how does wind cause erosion?
By creating sand-dunes
What is deflation?
wind removing surface material
What is abrasion?
the wearing away of rock by a grinding action
What is a sand dune?
a deposit of wind blown sand
what are loess deposits?
fine wind deposited sediment