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35 terms

Tawnya Lawson Nervous System

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Description of neuroglia
Supportive cells of the nervous system
Description of neuron
The basic unit of the nervous system
Description of cell body
Largest part of a neuron; made up of cytoplasm and nucleus
Description of dendrites
Short, threadlike receptive fibers spreading out from the cell body
Description of axon
Long, straight fiber which conducts impulses away from the cell body
Description of myelin
White, fatty material which covers some axons
Function of sensory neurons
Carry signals to the brain and spinal cord
Function of motor neurons
Carry signals away from the brain and spinal cord
Describe the transmission pathway of an impulse from one neuron to another
It is chemical
What is a synapse?
The junction where the axon of one neuron transmits a signal to an adjacent neuron
What is the function of cerebrospinal fluid
Cushions shocks that would otherwise injure delicate structures
What are the structures of the central nervous system?
Brain and spinal cord
Describe the brain
Pinkish grey, furrowed, weighs about 3 pounds
What are meninges?
Membranes that protect the spinal cord and brain
Describe the dura mater
Outer membrane made of tough connective tissue
What is the largest part of the brain?
Cerebrum
Describe the cerebral cortex
Outer surface of grey matter
What are gyri?
Elevated ridges
What are sulci?
Depressions or grooves
Describe the cerebral hemispheres
Halves of the cerebrum
What are the lobes of the cerebrum?
Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
What are ventricles?
Cavities of the brain
Describe cerebrospinal fluid
Watery substance
What is the function of the cerebellum?
Balance and coordination of body motion
What are the parts of the diencephalon?
Thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus
What is gray matter?
Cell bodies, dendrites, nonmyelinated axons
What is white matter?
Myelinated axons
What is the function of the autonomic nervous system?
Controls involuntary body functions
What are the divisions of the autonomic nervous system?
Sympathetic and parasympathetic
What are the functions of the parasympathetic division?
Rest and digest
What are the functions of the sympathetic division?
Fight or flight
What is another term for sensory neurons?
Afferent
What is another term for motor neurons?
Efferent
Which direction do impulses flow in a neuron?
Dendrite to cell body to axon
What direction do impulses flow in motor neurons?
Away from the central nervous system