Jessica is terrified of spiders, but is still able to do everything she wants. Why would Jessica's fear not be classified as a psychological disorder?
c. Jessica's fear is not disabling.
Recent discoveries that genetically influenced abnormalities in brain structure and biochemistry contribute to many psychological disorders contributes to the
c. medical model.
The DSM-IV-TR uses terminology such as "diagnosing," "symptoms," and "illness." The use of such terms suggests that the DSM-IV-TR is based on
E. medical model
Which of the following best describes the anxiety associated with generalized anxiety disorder?
People who suffer from phobias are most likely to
E. avoid objects or situations that lead to anxiety.
Saxon often goes back to check if he has locked the front door. Seth also checks his front door but checks it 10 times. Psychologists are more likely to view Seth's behavior as a disorder because
a. such behaviors may interfere with his everyday living.
Research has indicated that individuals are more likely to develop post-traumatic stress disorder if
c. they suffer great emotional distress during a trauma.
Nancy's fear of germ contamination causes her to feel overwhelming anxiety. She has found that when she repeatedly washes her hands, these feelings lessen. Which learning principle best explains why Nancy engages in this compulsive behavior?
During fMRI scans of individuals with OCD, neuroscientist Stefan Ursu found specific brain areas showing elevated activity while the person was engaging in compulsive behaviors. Which brain region was identified?
c. anterior cingulate cortex
Hypochondriasis is considered to be a(n) ________ disorder.
After a heated argument with his wife, Andrew disappeared. He was found three months later in a homeless shelter with no memory of his identity or family. Andrew's experience is consistent with which psychological disorder?
d. dissociative fugue
Dissociative identity disorder is rare outside of North America. This suggests that
c. this disorder may be a culture-bound illness.
Depression is considered the "common cold" of mental illnesses because
e. of its frequency.
Researchers have found that if one identical twin has bipolar disorder, the chances are 7 in 10 that the other twin will be diagnosed similarly. Among fraternal twins, the chances are 2 in 10. This finding supports the ________ perspective in explaining causes of bipolar disorder.
Schizophrenia is considered to be a(n) ________ disorder.
Typically, schizophrenia strikes
b. younger people more often than older people.
Drugs that interfere with glutamate receptors can produce behaviors consistent with the ________ symptoms of schizophrenia.
Research has found that the lifetime risk of developing schizophrenia is 1 in 10 for fraternal twins; for identical twins, the chances are 5 in 10. This finding supports the ________ perspective in explaining the causes of schizophrenia.
Annie tells everyone how important she is. She constantly seeks compliments from others and feels that she should be regarded as special, while she treats others without empathy. Her maladaptive patterns of behavior are consistent with ________ personality disorder.
Researchers identified that 75 percent of their investigative sample had experienced symptoms of psychological disorders by age ________.
While Olympic gold medalists deviate from the norm in their physical abilities, their behaviors are not classified as disordered. Which of the following best explains why this is the case?
a. Unless a behavior causes distress, it is not considered disordered.
A psychologist who emphasizes the impact of stressful life experiences as a cause of psychological disorders mostly likely focuses on ________ influences in the biopsychosocial model.
c. is comprised of five axes, or levels, of questions, which assist professionals in making diagnoses.
Who of the following is most likely to suffer from generalized anxiety disorder?
b. Shauna, 25-year-old mother
Central to social phobia
c. is a fear of being scrutinized by others.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is considered to be a(n) ________ disorder.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is more common among which age group?
b. teens and young adults
Post-traumatic stress disorder is considered to be a(n) ________ disorder
Some researchers believe that compulsive acts typically exaggerate behaviors that contributed to our species' survival—for example, checking territorial boundaries becomes rechecking a locked door. Such an explanation supports which of the following psychological perspectives?
People who experience physical symptoms in the absence of any physical cause are said to be suffering from a ________ disorder.
c. a separation of consciousness.
Researchers have found that handedness sometimes switches with personality changes. This suggests that dissociative identity disorder may
c. have a biological cause.
Bipolar disorder is more likely to affect
b. those who rely on emotional expression more than logic in their occupations.
Women are more likely than men to experience
e. learned helplessness.
When asked, "How are you today?" Todd replied, "Mike's Mom went to the island where there is no ice for the dentist." Todd's answer best illustrates
c. word salad.
Thomas believes that he can bench press 2000 pounds and that he is being followed by undercover agents. He also hears voices coming from the television telling him that he is "worthless." Thomas is experiencing the ________ symptoms of schizophrenia.
Drugs that block ________ receptors often lessen symptoms of schizophrenia, such as hallucinations and delusions.
By comparing the experiences of high-risk and low-risk children who do and do not develop schizophrenia, researchers have so far isolated which of following as a possible early warning sign for this disease?
e. emotional unpredictability
Gordon is a true loner who never interacts with others socially. Even though he was recently recognized at his work for his accomplishments, he seems indifferent to this honor. His co-workers describe him as aloof and detached. Gordon's maladaptive patterns of behavior are consistent with ________ personality disorder.
Based on research, which of the following individuals would be most likely to be experiencing symptoms of schizophrenia for the first time.
c. 24-year old Ivan
Which of the following statements is false?
b. someone suffering from depression will get better only with therapy or medication.
The risk of major depression and bipolar disorder dramatically increases if you
c. have a parent or sibling with the disorder.
What do mental health workers call patterns of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors that are deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional?
e. Psychological disorders
Adolescent mood swings are often misdiagnosed as
d. bipolar disorder.
A split from reality that shows itself in disorganized thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions is called
The nearly 1-in-100 odds of any person being diagnosed with schizophrenia become about 1 in 10 among those
b. whose sibling or parent has the disorder.
Which of the following is not an anxiety disorder?
c. Bipolar disorder
Sensory experiences without sensory stimulation are called
The number one reason people seek mental health services is
Brain-scanning techniques reveal that people with chronic schizophrenia tend to have
c. abnormal activity in multiple brain areas.
People with _________________ show little regret over violating others' rights.
a. antisocial personality disorder
Our way of thinking—who or what we blame for our successes and failures—is called
d. explanatory style.
Although some psychological disorders are culture-bound, others are universal. For example, in every known culture some people suffer from
Today's psychologists contend that all behavior, whether it is called normal or disordered, arises from the interaction of
a. genetics and physiology.
Generalized anxiety disorder is diagnosed when a person
a. is unexplainably and continually tense and uneasy.