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Pathophysiology Module 5- Neoplasms
Terms in this set (55)
What controls the growth and reproduction of cells?
True or False: during normal mitosis the DNA daughter cells are not identical
False, exact DNA daughter cells are reproduced
When two daughter cells through mitosis are not identical
Causes of mutations
Exposure to chemicals, viruses, radiation, environmental hazards, rapid tissue growth due to trauma
True or False- mutant cells may lose or change function including mitosis
Neoplasms consist of ____________.
Atypical cells or immature cells
True or False: Neoplasms are undifferentiated cells, therefore serve no useful purpose
"good", not cancerous, often ends in -oma
"lethal", cancer, often ends in -carcinoma or -sarcoma
the study of malignant cancers
Benign neoplasm cells
1. similar to normal cells
3. mitosis fairly normal
Benign neoplasm growth
1. relatively slow
2. expanding mass
3. frequently encapsulated
Benign neoplasm spread
Remains localized because of capsule
Benign neoplasm systemic effects
When is a benign neoplasm possibly life threatening?
Only in certain locations like the brain
Malignant neoplasm cells
1. varied in size and shape with large nuclei
2. many undifferentiated
3. Mitosis increased and irregular
Malignant neoplasm growth
2. cells not adhesive, infiltrate tissue
3. no capsules
Malignant neoplasm spread
Invades nearby tissues or metastasizes to distant sites through blood and lymph vessels
Malignant neoplasm systemic effects
Why are malignant neoplasms often life threatening?
Tissue destruction and spread of tumors
In malignant tumors there is a loss of...
Organization of the cells, growth inhibition (don't know when to stop growing), contact controls (can detach and spread), and cell-cell communication.
Altered cell membranes in malignant tumors...
keep t-cells from getting involved
True or False: Malignant tumors have their own nutrients and blood supply that do not effect healthy tissues
False- Malignant tumors steal blood supply and nutrients from healthy tissues
What are blood tests to diagnose cancer?
Hgb (anemia and WBCs), cell characteristics, other blood cell counts
What are the tumor markers for cancer?
CEA, Ca-125 (breast cancer), PSA, EGFR-a, Estrogen + (more aggressive cancer)
What is a genetic test for breast cancer?
test of the actual cell, histology and biopsy
T: size of the primary tumor
N: extent of regional node involvement (# of nodes)
M: signs of distant invasion / Metastatic spread
Determines the extent of the disease and is monitored throughout the course of the disease. Provides a basis for treatment and prognosis.
Local effects of malignancy
Pain (compression of nerve tissue), obstruction (mass blocks normal tissue process), and tissue necrosis (inflammation can lead to infection)
Systemic effects of malignancy
Weight loss, anemia, infections, bleeding, paraneoplastic syndromes
tumor cells mimic another disorder
3 ways malignancy spread
local spread where the tumor grows into adjacent tissues and destroys normal cells
Spreading to distant sites via blood or lymph channels (Stage 4 cancer)
Movement of neoplastic cells in body fluids or along membranes usually in a cavity. Can also occur from procedures (ex: biopsy, can spread through the needle track)
To destroy and cure cancer, early surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation
To prevent metastasis, hormones, anti-angiogenics, biologic response modifiers (BRM). These treatments go along with curative
Late treatments, for comfort only, to reduce size of tumor (pain). Examples: surgery, pain medication, radiation
give cells that block chemical that is secreted to create new arteries, block the tumor from creating a blood supply
Causes mutations or alteration in targeted DNA, preventing mitosis or causing cell death (affects multiplying cells more- cells in active mitosis)
True or False: Radiation is systemic
False, radiation is more targeted and localized
Adverse effects of radiation
bone marrow depression, increase infections, epithelial cell damage (hair loss, GI upset), abdominal radiation damages reproductive organs, fatigue and lethargy
Usually administer 3-4 classifications of antineoplastics at one time. Drugs interfere with protein synthesis and DNA replication. Affects ALL reproducing cells, even healthy ones
Adverse effects of chemotherapy
Bone marrow suppression, malnutrition, epithelial damage, and CNS emetic center
Bone marrow suppression causes
anemia, neutropenia, infection
GI symptoms, nausea, dehydration
Epithelial damage causes
stomatitis, nausea, vomiting, alopecia
CNS emetic center causes
vomiting from GI, epithelial, and CNS
What do you do if a patient's WBC gets below 1.5
Suspend treatment for a week to increase WBC count and re-check levels. Wear mask, take extra precautions to avoid infection
"Cure" for cancer
5 year survival rate
Which cancers have a worse prognosis
Colon, rectum, and stomach cancer because they are harder to detect and can be more aggressive
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