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operant conditioning and classical conditioning

STUDY
PLAY
shaping
reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
negative reinforcement
increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as a shock
primary reinforcer
satisfies a biological need
acquisition
the initial stage of linking the neutral and the unconditioned stimulus so that neutral stimulus becomes conditioned stim
classical conditioning
type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli
unconditioned response
unlearned, naturally occurring response to an unconditioned stim
unconditioned stim
the stimulus that produces the unlearned response to a perviously neutral stimulus
conditioned response
the learned response
conditioned stim
a previously irrelevant stimulus that triggers a conditioned response
continuous reinforcement
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
delayed reinforcement
reinforcement that is produced within some time after the behavior
discrimination
the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned and stimuli that do not elicit the response
shaping
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
latent learning
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
modeling
the process of observing and imitating
negative reinforcement
increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. Any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response.
positive reinforcement
increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response
primary reinforcement
something that is naturally reinforcing, such as food (if you are hungary), warmth (if you are cold), and water (if you are thirsty)
partial reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
negative punishment
punishment that occurs with the removal of a stimulus and thus decreases the probability of a behavior's recurring
positive punishment
Following an undesired response by adding an unpleasant stimulus to decrease the likelihood of the behavior reoccurring
observational learning
learning by observing others
operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
fixed interval
consistent, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specific time
fixed ratio
consistent, reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specific number of responses
variable interval
not constant, reinforces a response only after a specific time (how long?)
variable ratio
not constant, reinforces a response (how many?)
dissociation
split consciousness, simultaneous thoughts
hallucinogens
LSD, distort perception and produce falso sensory images
opiates
depress neural activity, opium, heroin, morphine, lessen pain
physical dependence
psychological need for a drug
psychoactive drugs
chemical substance which alters perception and moods
REM
rapid eye movement, heart rate increases, breathing become irregular, vivid dreams occur
stage 1
alpha waves, hallucinations, hypnagogic
stage 2
theta waves, sleep spindles, sleep talking
stage 3/4
delta waves, night terrors, sleep walking
sleep apnea
breathing cessations, repeated awakening
stimulant
excites neural activity, cocain