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Members of which of the following are the major primary producers in the marine ecosystem?


Lack of water common in summer; seasonal temperature variations; maintains by periodic fires.

Temperate Grassland

Eutrophication in lakes is frequently the direct result of

Nutrient Enrichment

The LEAST effective means of controlling pest species such as rats or roaches over a long period of time is generally to

distribute pesticides throughout the habitat

A. distribute pesticides throughout the habitat

closely related species with similar niches

Which of the following is characteristic of a fast-moving stream ecosystem?

high levels of dissolved oxygen

All of the following are true about Earth's ozone layer EXCEPT:

its thickness has remained consistent over time

Grass ® Cricket ® Prairie chicken ® Coyote ® Vulture

In which organism in the food chain above would the biological magnification of DDT concentration be most obvious?


A species of malaria-carrying mosquito lives in a forest in which two species of monkeys, A and B, coexist. Species A is immune to malaria but species B is not. The malaria-carrying mosquito is the chief food for a particular kind of bird in the forest. If all of these birds are eliminated suddenly by hunters, which of the following would be the immediate observable consequence?

Increased mortality in monkey species B

If, in country I, infant mortality declined and the birth rate remained the same, then initially the population would be expected to

be even more concentrated in the young age classes

All of the following statements about the pyramid of biomass are correct EXCEPT:

The base of the pyramid generally represents primary consumers.

The relationship of a fungus and an alga in a lichen.


The organic and inorganic materials in all the organisms in the diagram will eventually return to the environment by the action of


All of the following statements about the diagram are correct EXCEPT

only two trophic levels are depicted

Competitive exclusion is most likely to occur between two

closely related species occupying the same niche

a study of the metabolic rate in a terrestrial community shows that the energy released by respiration exceeds the energy captured in photosynthesis. Which of the following situations is occurring?

Community biomass is decreasing

The gain in biomass remaining after respiratory loss in plants

net primary productivity

Over 10 inches of precipitation per year; long, cold winters and short summers; dominant vegetation is evergreen trees.


Which of the following organisms is most likely to be located at the apex of the pyramid of biomass?


Gradual transition over time from one type of biological community to another.

ecological succession

If the larvae of a particular species of mosquito are to survive to the adult stage, the eggs must be laid in the trapped pool of water of the northern pitcher plant. The mosquito larvae provide no apparent benefit or harm to the pitcher plant. This type of interaction is an example of


During the carbon cycle, which of the following carbon compounds would be utilized as an energy source by heterotrophs?

organic molecules

In Country I, approximately what percentage of the individuals were younger than fifteen years of age?


Over the next 10-15 years, the stabilization of country I's population at its current size would require that

each couple produce fewer children than the number requred to replace themselves

In traveling from a forest ecosystem to a grassland, one notes that the trees gradually give way to prairie grasses. The critical factor governing this shift is usually the

availability of water

Which of the following is an important characteristic of the tropical rain forest biome?

Rapid recycling of nutrients

Species that utilize the same source of nutrition within a food web can best be described as

occupying the same trophic level

Less than 10 inches of precipitation per year; extremes of hot and cold throughout the year; large daily temperature variations


Warning coloration is most effective against vertebrate predators that are

able to learn through trial and error

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