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Direct Rule

system of colonial government in which the imperialist power controlled all levels of government and appointed its own officials to carry out colonial rule.

Indirect Rule

system of colonial government in which the imperialist power uses native leaders to carry out colonial rule.

Social Darwinism

The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for imperialist expansion.

Berlin Conference

a meeting at which representatives of European nations agreed upon rules for the European colonization of Africa, A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa (1884-85)

Suez Canal

a manmade waterway connecting the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, which was opened in 1869 reducing the travel time to the Far East

Sepoy Rebellion

The revolt of Indian soldiers in 1857 caused by British insensitivity of Indian religious customs. (Rifle Cartridges)

British East India Company

An English company formed in 1600 to develop trade with the new British colonies in India and southeastern Asia.

Indian National Congress

A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government and eventual self rule

Muslim League

organization formed by Muslims in India to protect their interests against British Rule.

Opium War

a conflict between Britain and China, lasting from 1839 to 1842, over Britain's opium trade in China ended by the Treaty of Nanjing

Treaty of Nanjing

"unequal treaty" to end Opium War in which China had to accept British terms for peace

Open Door Policy

A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.

Boxer Rebellion

uprising in northern China in an attempt to rid China of foreign influence

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