Nuclear Chem Test
Terms in this set (59)
is about the stability of the nucleus
protons, nuetrons, has a charge
What is in the nucleus?
protons it is dense positively charged
Nuetron to Proton ratio
in the nucleus, can either increase or decrease stability
nuclei with a favorable ratio are more stable
atomic numbers 1-20, favorable neutron ratio 1:1
atomic numbers 21-82, favorable neutron ratio N:P>1
Greater than 82....
if you are given isotopes the more of one type...
means that type is most likely the most stable
What holds the nucleus together?
the protons in the nucleus are positive, so they repeal each other, and the nuclides have a force of attraction.
Strong nuclear force over..
Large nuclei are more unstable because..
the electric force becomes dominant because strong nuclear force is diminished by distance
What happens to the unstable nuclei?
they fall apart and give off high energy particles
high energy particiles
Unstable nuclei will give off radiation until...
they become smaller than a stable Lead isotope, become stable/lower energy
a nuclear reaction in which an element changes identity
4/2HE, +2 charge, most mass/least penetration
element-> 4/2HE+element minus 4 on top and 2 on bottom
figured out what uranium plates did to photographic plates (XRAY)
X RAY, worked with particle excel orators, ionizing radiation because they are higher energy than visible light.
high speed photons, particle accelerators use a magnetic or electrical field, can accelerate alpha, beta, but not gamma
will functionally turn into a proton
radio, microwave, infared, ROYGBIV, ultra violet, xray, gamma ray
the amount of time necessary for half of a radio active isotope to spontaneously decay
produce more energy than ordinary chemical reactions because they can convert mass into energy
changes element without adding smoething
changes the element when a stable nucleus is bombarded with a particle
release energy when a large nucleus splits into smaller pieces (only uranium²³⁵ and plutonium²³⁹)
Nucleus fission (what type of reaction)
chain reaction because it makes more neutrons then it uses
the point at which the reaction becomes uncontrolable
2 small nucleus combine into a stable nucleus, requires high temp and pressure (the sun)
detects radiation at hospitals, plants, ect.
does and controls fission
to control fission
you have to control neutrons
uses of radio isatopes
energy, weapons, tracers, archeology, killing food pathogens, diagnosing
things that enter the body..
should have quick half life and quick elimination
the charge on a gamma ray is
what particle is emitted in alpha radiation
a beta particle is a
what is the change in atomic mass when an atom emits a beta particle?
remains the same
what is the change in atomic mass when an atom emits gamma radiation
remains the same
the least penetrating form of radiation is
ionizing radiation that consists of helium nuclei is
what is the change in atomic number when an atom emits an alpha particle?
decreases by 2
what is the change in atomic number when an atom emits a beta particle
increases by 1
what its he change in atomic number caused by the emission of gamma radiation?
remains the same›
which symbol is used for alpha
which of the following materials is necessary to stop an alpha?
sheet of paper
what particle decomposes to produce the electron of beta radiation?
what symbol is used for beta radiation?
which of the following materials is necessary to stop a beta particle?
thin pieces of wood
which of the following materials is most effective for stopping gamma?
several cm of lead
a neutron breaks down to form
a proton and an electron
which of the following is not a reason that water is used to store spent fuel plants?
water cools the spent rods
what is the change in atomic mass number when an atom emits an alpha particle
decreases by 4
band of stability
ratio of neutrons to protons
if an isotope decays by the process of beta emission
the atomic number changes
when radium-226 (atomic number 88) decays by emitting alpha what is left?