After this chapter you should be able to:
- identify Earth's natural sources of water.
- discuss the ways in which humans manage water distribution.
- describe the major human uses of water.
- identify the factors that will affect the future availability of water.
A permeable layer of rock and sediment that contains groundwater.
An aquifer made of porous rock covered by soil, which water can easily flow into and out of.
An aquifer surrounded by a layer of impermeable rock or clay that impedes water flow.
The uppermost level at which the water in a given area fully saturates rock or soil.
A process by which water percolates through the soil and works its way into an aquifer.
A natural source of water formed when water from an aquifer percolates up to the ground surface.
A well created by drilling a hole into a confined aquifer.
cone of depression
An area from which the groundwater has been rapidly withdrawn.
An infiltration of salt water in an area where groundwater pressure has been reduced from extensive drilling of wells.
The land adjacent to a river.
A lake with a low level of productivity as a result of low amounts of nutrients in the water.
A lake with a moderate level of productivity.
A lake with a high level of productivity.
Pavement or buildings that do not allow water penetration.
An enlarged bank built up on each side of a river to prevent flooding.
A structure built to prevent ocean waters from flooding adjacent land.
A barrier that runs across a river or stream to control the flow of water.
A body of water created by blocking the natural flow of a waterway.
A stair-like structure that allows migrating fish to get around a dam.
A canal or ditch used to carry water from one location to another.
The process of removing the salt from salt water.
The cultivation of plants in greenhouse conditions by immersing roots in a nutrient-rich solution.
Wastewater from baths, showers, bathrooms, and washing machines.