23 terms

APES Chapter 9 Review

After this chapter you should be able to: - identify Earth's natural sources of water. - discuss the ways in which humans manage water distribution. - describe the major human uses of water. - identify the factors that will affect the future availability of water.
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aquifer
A permeable layer of rock and sediment that contains groundwater.
unconfined aquifer
An aquifer made of porous rock covered by soil, which water can easily flow into and out of.
confined aquifer
An aquifer surrounded by a layer of impermeable rock or clay that impedes water flow.
water table
The uppermost level at which the water in a given area fully saturates rock or soil.
groundwater recharge
A process by which water percolates through the soil and works its way into an aquifer.
spring
A natural source of water formed when water from an aquifer percolates up to the ground surface.
artesian well
A well created by drilling a hole into a confined aquifer.
cone of depression
An area from which the groundwater has been rapidly withdrawn.
saltwater intrusion
An infiltration of salt water in an area where groundwater pressure has been reduced from extensive drilling of wells.
floodplain
The land adjacent to a river.
oligotrophic lake
A lake with a low level of productivity as a result of low amounts of nutrients in the water.
mesotrophic lake
A lake with a moderate level of productivity.
eutrophic lake
A lake with a high level of productivity.
impermeable surfaces
Pavement or buildings that do not allow water penetration.
levee
An enlarged bank built up on each side of a river to prevent flooding.
dike
A structure built to prevent ocean waters from flooding adjacent land.
dam
A barrier that runs across a river or stream to control the flow of water.
reservoir
A body of water created by blocking the natural flow of a waterway.
fish ladder
A stair-like structure that allows migrating fish to get around a dam.
aqueduct
A canal or ditch used to carry water from one location to another.
desalination
The process of removing the salt from salt water.
hydroponic agriculture
The cultivation of plants in greenhouse conditions by immersing roots in a nutrient-rich solution.
gray water
Wastewater from baths, showers, bathrooms, and washing machines.
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