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AP Euro Chpt. 22

Chapter 22 Foundations of the Nineteenth Century: Politics and Change Significant Individuals
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Congress of Vienna
An international congress that met from 1814 to 1815 to set peace terms for continental Europe after the Napoleonic Wars; notable for its creation of a European balance of power and the restoration of old dynasties
Congress of Vienna consisted of four great powers
Austria, Great Britain, Prussia, Russia, and later France
Klemens von Metternich
Austrian prince who was the most significant during the meeting of Congress of Vienna and formed an international alliance to defeat Napoleon
Lord Castlereagh
English foreign minister who closely supported Metternich
Alexander I
Representative of Russia for Congress of Vienna. He was unpredictable due to his belief in mysticism and distrust for grandiose programs that would affect self-interest
King Louis XVIII
To be king of France after Napoleon as recognized by the Treaty of Paris
Prince Talleyrand
French representative in Congress of Vienna who had once helped Napoleon rise to power and was his foreign minister
Wellington
General of the Allied Army who defeated Napoleon at Waterloo
Hundred days
The days of Napoleons dashing venture to reestablish France that had strong effects
restorations
attempts by the powers in Europe to restore the dynasties and monarchial institutions (including Bourbons in France) disrupted by the revolutionary and Napoleonic upheavals
Monroe Doctrine
United States declaration that America is outside the sphere of European power politics
Decembrist
A group of young army officers who attempted a coup to establish a constitution in Russia
Westernizers
Intellectuals who expected Russia to develop along familiar European lines
Slavohpiles
Russian intellectuals who opposed Westernization and saw Russia's unique institutions and culture as superior; some supported autocracy but also favored emancipation of serfs
Magyar
The Hungarian-speaking population of the Hapsburg Empire who began to push for Hungary's independence in the 1840
Lajos Kossuth
Hungary leading statesman who campaigned for more representative parliament and reforms
Wartburg Festival
An organized celebration of the 300th anniversary of Luther's theses by reform students and nationalists
Zollverein
A customs union established by Prussia among most states in the German Confederation that allowed for free movement of goods; promoted the economic unification of Germany
Ferdinand VII
restored King of Spain
Carbonari
means charcoal burners and was a secret group in Italy that talked of radical reforms and equality and justice
Charles Albert
A prince regent who granted a constitution to Piedmont which lasted two weeks
Charter
A permitted constitution of France that granted legislature more authority but left government in hands of the king
white terror
anyone tainted with revolutionary past were ousted from office or even killed by regime supporters
duke of Barry
son of Louis' younger brother who was assassinated reminding how fragile the monarchy was
Charles X
The next king of France after Louis XVIII who was leader of unltraroyalist and crowned himself at Reims in medieval splendor similar to divine rights of kings
ultraroyalists
French reactionaries who not only supported divine right monarchy but called for return of lands taken from emigres during the revolution
July Ordinances
Secret decrees by king Charles X which dissolved the Chamber of Deputies, further restricted suffrage, and muzzled press
John Wilkinson
ironmaster who believed that iron would be the building material of new age and his improved techniques for boring cylinders made it possible to make better cannons and steam engines. He also built world's first iron bridge
What was steam engine first called
Atmospheric engine
Thomas Savery
inventor who created the first commercially successful atmospheric engine and published about it in a book called Miner's Friend
Corn Laws
British tariff on imported grain
Crystal Palace
giant greenhouse, an architectural milestone, to celebrate their position as the masters of industrialization. An industrial exhibition
differentiation
spread of specialization among groups and institutions that was a characteristic of the nineteenth century
Matthew Boulton
Watt's partner and Birmingham industrialist who realized that cheap power was in demand from textile industries
Concert of Europe
Great powers agreement to support conservative regimes. Influenced by Metternich and it created balance of power
Carlsbad decrees
German measures to keep students and faculty in line. removed liberal university professors and expanded censorship of press