22 terms

Government Chapter 2 and 3 Objectives

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identify the 3 concepts of government that influenced American colonies
1. Ordered Government: regulations of relationships with one another (states) and for the government
2. Limited Government: the government is not omnipotent, the idea that the government is restricted in what it can do, every individual has rights that the government cannot take away
3. Representative Government: the idea that the government should serve the WILL OF THE PEOPLE
Explain the significance of three landmark English documents on the formation of American democracy
1. The Magna Carta: 1215- Barons were seeking protection against heavy-handed and arbitrary acts of kings
Created the Magna Carta which allows for a trial by jury and due process of law
The power of the Monarchy was not absolute.
-limited rights
2. The Petition of Right- limited the king's power by stating the king could not:
imprison/punish a person without a judgement of peers, impose martial law in peacetime, require quartering, no taxation without the consent of parliament.
Challenged "divine right"
monarchs must obey the laws
-more rights and rights to Parliament
3. English Bill of Rights
prohibited: a standing army in peacetime, excessive bail, cruel and unusual punishment, punishment for subjects who petitioned the crown.
required: parliamentary elections to be free, parliamentary consent to suspend laws, parliamentary consent for raising funds.
-the most rights
-more rights to Parliament
Describe the 3 types of colonies that England established in America
Royal Colonies- King named a governor as the chief executive and a council to be advisors to the governor, governor's council acted as the upper house of the legislature and as the Supreme Court, lower house was elected by white male landowners. examples: NY, NJ, VA, NC, SC, GA.
Proprietary Colonies
organized by a proprietor, granted land by the king. Governed as the proprietor wishes
Charter Colonies- established by charters from the king, mostly self-governing, governors elected by white male landowner (king had to approve elections, but rarely challenged them), charters were so liberal that after independence only minor changes were made to the government structures.
examples: CT and RI
explain how english colonial policies contributed to the growth of self government in the colonies
Distance from England made it so the colonial governments were functioning with little input from the crown--Federal System
-colonial legislatures assumed more law making powers
The 7 Years War (French and Indian War)
-Empowered the colonists who defeated French forces with little help from Britain
identify the major events that led to growing feelings of colonial unity and disenchantment with England
New England Confederation, The Albany Plan of Union, Stamp Act of 1765 requiring the use of tax stamps on all documents, papers, and cards.
Sons of Liberty established to resist tax.
Stamp Act Congress- In response the colonists formed the Stamp Act Congress where 9/13 colonies sent delegates to discuss the new taxes
The Declaration of Rights and Grievances
***First time the colonies united and opposed the British Government.
1772 The Committees for Correspondence were established- coordinate their efforts of rebellion and resistance to the British crown
Boston Tea Party- dressed like native americans, stole tea, dumped it in the harbor.
caused terror by disguising themselves and dumping tea.
Compare the 1st and 2nd Colonial Congresses
1st- Delegates from every colony except Georgia met, for nearly 2 months, the members discussed the worsening situation and debated plans for action, they sent a Declaration of Rights to King George III, they urged the colonies to refuse all trade with England.
2nd- By the time they met the Revolution had begun, all 13 colonies were represented, a continental army was created and George Washington was named commander in chief, was condemned by the British as an unlawful assembly and a "den of traitors"
The second continental congress became the nation's first national government, it served the United States for five years. It fought wars, raised armies, borrowed funds, bought supplies, created a money system, and made treaties.
Analyze the ideas in the Declaration of Independence and the impact of Locke's ideas of government
the people should rule instead of be ruled. every person is important as an individual, *created equal, and endowed with certain unalienable rights. Declaration was founded on the concept of *"the consent of the governed," not divine right or tradition. Locke's ideas greatly impacted the Declaration of Independence because many of his exact ideas helped establish the document.
Summarize the common features of the first state constitutions
1.Popular sovereignty- control over territory by vote, controlling whats happening through voting
2.Limited government- gov. is restricted, it only has certain powers
3.Civil rights and liberties (inalienable rights)
4.Separation of powers- 3 branches of government that check and balance one another
5.Checks and balances
identify the government structure under the Articles of Confederation
-national government with a Congress (empowered to print money, sign treaties, negotiate with Indians, control the post office, and appoint military officials)
Each states retains independence and sovereignty
One vote in congress for each state
9 of 13 states must approve any legislation in order to become law
state legislatures select and fund representatives
describe the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
Congress had no power to tax; regulate commerce among states or with foreign nations; no ability to ensure value or unity of money; no power to post tariffs or regulate duties
No executive: No one to implement and enforce laws; to coordinate foreign policy; to ensure compliance with Treaty of Paris (1783) that ended the Revolutionary War
No central judiciary
Could not address:
trade disputes
disputes about the frontier and lands to the west
Disputes among states about borders
necessary amendments or change the Articles
Explain the importance of Shays Rebellion on the formation of the American Government
Governor called for reinforcements and asked other states and federal government to assist in putting down rebellion but No states responded and federal government had no power. The Rebellion was used a justification to change the Articles of Confederation
Describe the Virginia and New Jersey Plans
Virginia Plan- Three branches, Bicameral legislature, Representation based on population or amount of money given to gov, Representatives elected by voters in each state, Senators chosen by House from those nominated by State legislatures, Legislature-most powerful branch, Congress has power to admit other states.
New Jersey Plan- Unicameral legislature, Equal representation, Limited power to tax, Regulate interstate trade, Plural executives, Single court appointed by executive branch
Explain the 3 major compromises in the Constitution
two house legislature (bicameral), equal representatives in the upper house of congress (Senate), and representatives based on population in the lower house of congress (house of representatives)
identify federalists beliefs on american government
strong central government (James Madison/Alexander Hamilton)
stressed the weakness of Articles of Confederation
identify anti-federalists beliefs on american government
Strong state government (Samuel Adams/ John Hancock)
were concerned about loss of state's and individual rights
understand the basic outline of the constitution
sets out the basic principles upon which the gov. operates, lays out the ways the Federal Government is organized,
describe each of the six basic principles of the Constitution. (popular sovereignty, limited government, separation of powers, checks and balances, judicial review, and federalism)
1. Popular sovereignty- all political power resides in the people, the people have given the government all the powers it holds through the Constitution
those powers are carried out by individuals elected by the people who represent the people's interests
2. Limited Government: the government is not all powerful-it can only do what people have given power to do
3. Separation of powers- power split among three independent and coequal branches
Congress-lawmaking
President- law administering
Supreme Court- law interpretation and application
4. Checks and Balances
the three branches are not entirely separate nor independent from one another. Each branch is subject to restraints from other branches
5. Judicial Review- the power of the court to determine the constitutionality of governmental actions
unconstitutional: to declare illegal- a government 6. Federalism- Separation of powers between central and several regional government
division of powers hoped to solve the problems that came out of monarchy and the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
describe each of the ways the constitution can be changed (4)
1. proposed by 2/3 vote in each house of congress, THEN ratified by 3/4 of the state legislatures
26 of 27 amendments have been done this way
2. proposed by 2/3 vote in each house of Congress THEN ratified by conventions in 3/4 of states (21st amendment)
3. proposed at a national convention called by Congress at the request of 2/3 state legislatures THEN ratified by 3/4 of State Legislatures
4. Proposed at a national convention, called by Congress, at the request of 2/3 state legislatures THEN ratified by convention in 3/4 of the States
explain how the formal amendment process illustrates federalism and popular sovereignty
*federalism- proposals take place at a national level and then are ratified by the states
*popular sovereignty- proposals are written and ratified by representatives of the people- represents will of the people
outline the amendments to the constitution
The Bill of Rights
Amendment 1-10
adopted shortly after the Constitution was ratified in order to solve problems relatled to the rights expressed in the constitution (1791)
The Later Amendments
each added under unique circumstances
13th amendment- abolotion of slavery, 14th- citizenship, 15th- right to vote, 18th- prohibition, 19th- women's suffrage, 21st- repeal of prohibition, 26th- voting age changed
describe the ways in which the executive and judicial branches have interpreted the Constitution
Executive Action - executive agreements(President can declare war without Congress because the President can have emergency powers)
The manner in which President's have used their powers and contributed to the growth of the Constitution. An example is when Thomas Jefferson engineered the Louisiana Purchase even though the Constitution does not say the President can acquire territory.
Court decisions- interpretations impacted by changes in society
The nation's courts interpret and apply the Constitution in many of the cases they hear. An example is when the Court established the power of judicial review, which isn't specifically mentioned in the Constitution.
describe the role of party practices in interpreting the Constitution
electoral college
Most of the Framer's were opposed to political parties yet they have been a major agent of constitutional change over our nation's history. An example is how the nomination of candidates for presidency, major parties hold national conventions.