31 terms

Abeka Physics Chapter 1 terms

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physics
concerned with matter and energy
special revelation
the truth about God that can be found through the Bible
general revelation
the truth about God that can be found through the study of nature
classical physics
deals with subjects studied by physicists from the time of Galileo
Modern physics
new branches that have been developed to take physics in new directions: quantum mechanics, relativity, solid-state physics, and particle physics
cogitation
thinking deeply relying solely on whatever facts or insights you can discover within your own mind
observation
the careful watching and recording of events in nature for the purpose of enlarging what you already know
physical quantities
length and volume
fundamental unit
the result of direct measurement or physical characteristics
derived unit
the arithmetic combination of fundamental units, such as the cubic meter or cubic foot
fundamental quantity
a quantity measured in terms of a fundamental unit
derived quantity
a quantity measured in terms of a derived unit
U.S. customary system (FPS system)
the system most commonly used in the US for everyday measurements
metric system (SI) (MKS system)
the most common system of units used by scientists
cgs system
used in scientific work but not as much
standard
an unalterable fact that, by general agreement, sets the unit value of a fundamental physical quantity
meter
the first international standar of unit of length, indicated by a metal bar with inscribed marks
kilogram
the SI unit of mass
second
defined as 9,192,631,770 vibrations of the cesium- 133 atom
dimensional analysis
the technique that uses conversion factors that are equal to or approximately equal to 1 as a series of multiplied fractions to cancel out unwanted units and leave the desired units
significant digits
digits that convey information about the actual time of what you are measureing
exact number
result of simple counting
accuracy
a measurement that may be defined as the closeness to the actual value
precision
series of measurements may be defined as their closeness to each other
tolerance
the precision of a measuring instrument
mean value
all measurements of the same mass should differ no more than 0.000 001 g above or below the average
error of measurement
the amount of inaccuracy in a measurement
systematic error
some cause that affects every measurement in the same way
random error
cannot be eliminated and can include a host of unpredictable and uncontrollable factors in the shifting background of measurement
literal equation
an equation with variables standing for quantities
proportion
when one fraction is equal to another fraction