Upgrade to remove ads
immunology exam 1
Terms in this set (107)
________ was immunology's claim to fame
________ ________ was the father of vaccination
The typical sites of susceptibility to infection are
1. respiratory tract
__________ are hormones of the immune system
cytokines are secreted when
there is an exposure to a pathogen or allergen
___________ communicate between leukocytes
Cells in ______ _______ distinguish host from infectious agents by recognizing conserved motifs
The cells in innate immunity include:
3. NK cells
Neutrophils are stored in the _____ _______
what diseases are associated with neutrophil death
3. Chediak-Higashi sydrome
CGD is when
NADPH oxidase is defective
LAD is when
there is a deficiency in adhesion molecules
Chediak-Higashi syndrome is when
granules are defective
_______ ____ are known as professional antigen presenting cells
In the dendritic cell's immature state it has the following characteristics
1. resides in the tissue
2. highly endocytic
3. low expression of costimulatory molecules
4. poor stimulator of T cells
In the dendritic cell's mature state it has the following characteristics
1. resides in the lymph node
2. no endocytosis
3. high expression of costimulatory molecules
4. great stimulator for T cells
_________ are an important source of IL-4 and expressed IgE receptors
_________ combat multi-cellular parasites
_______ ____ are major mediators of type I hypersensitivity and express IgE
___ _____ recognize stress proteins and cells that have lost expression of "normal" molecules
Interaction of NK cells with an uninfected cell that expresses no MIC ligand for ______ leads to no killing of a healthy cell
The activating receptors of NK cells have ____ cytoplasmic tails and bind to ________ _______.
long; aberant proteins
The inhibitory receptors of NK cells have ______ cytoplasmic tails and bind to ______ ____ _.
short; MHC class I
______ is a pore forming molecule much like C9
__________ activate an apoptopic cascade and activate capases
Transition from innate to adaptive immunity begins with
migration of dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes
Cells of _________ ________ carry specific receptors
The adaptive immune system contains:
T cells and B cells
What are the types of adaptive immunity?
humoral and cell mediated
__ _________ recognize soluble antigens and develop into antibody secreting cells
____ _ ______ recognize antigens on the surfaces of antigen-presenting cells and secrete cytokines
helper T lymphocytes
__________ _ _______ recognize antigens on infected cells and kill them
cytotoxic T lymphocytes
___________ _ ____ suppress and prevent immune responses
regulatory T cells
A molecule recognized by the immune system as foreign is an ______.
A protein produced by B cells, binds specifically to a given antigen; also referred to as immunoglobulin ia an _________.
The _________ _______ is a group or cascade of serum protein.
The complement system is involved in:
control of inflammation and opsonization
what are the three pathways of complement activation
classical, alternative, and MB-lectin
The _______ ______ consists of antigens and c-reactive protein
The C-reactive protein binds _______ on bacterial surfaces
The ________ ______ binds lectin to pathogen surfaces and recognizes carbohydrates.
The _________ ________ does not need a ligand binding molecule for complement activation
___ ________ cleaves C3a and C3b
___ recruits phagocytes
___ tags bacterium for destruction
The membrane attack complex is made out of
__ _________ binds to activted Clr,C1s, removing them from Clq, and to activated MASP-2, removing it from MBL
______ __ binds C3b, displacing Bb; cofactor of I
______ __ serine preotease that cleaves C3b ans C4b
______ also known as _____ prevents the formation of the membrane attack complex
_______ are trimeric or hexameric proteins
________ have a carbohydrate recognition domain, act as opsonins, and activate the MBL pathway
_______ stabilizes C3 convertase
________ are pentameric proteins in the plasma that recognize microbial structures
SAP binds _______ ________.
the effect of __, __, __ deficiency results in the immune-complex disease.
C1, C2, C4
the effect of __ deficiency results in a susceptibility to capsulated bacteria.
the effect of ______ deficiency results in susceptibility to Neisseria
the effect of ____ _ deficiency results in similar effects to deficiency of C3
the effect of ___ and ____ deficiency results in autoimmune-like conditions including paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglonuria
the effect of _____ and ___ deficiency results in increased risk of infections
MASP and MBL
Pathogens express a variety of ______.
PAMPS (pathogen-associated molecular patterns)
______ receptors facilitate uptake of particles
_______ receptors recognize bacterial PAMPs and induce activation of the cell through signaling cascades leading to changes in gene expression
______ and ______ helped in the discovery of toll-like receptors
Janeway and Medzhitov
TLr1 and TLR2 recognize ________ , have _______ ligands, and are located in the ______ _______.
bacteria, lipopeptide, plasma membrane
TLR2 and TLR6
recognize gram-positive bacteria, have lipoteichoic acid ligands , located in plasma membrane
TLR3 recognizes ______, has _______ ligands, and is located in _________.
viruses (West Nile), ds viral RNA, endosomes
TLR4 recognizes ______, has ________ ligands, and is located in the ______ _________.
gram-negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, plasma membrane
TLR5 recognizes _____________, has ________ ligands, and is located in the _______ _______.
motile bacteria, flagellin, plasma membrane
TLR7 recognizes ________, has ______ ligands, and is located in _______.
viruses (HIV), ssRNA , endosomes
TLR8 recognizes _______, has _______ ligands, and is located in ________.
viruses (influenza), ssRNA, endosomes
TLR9 recognizes ______, has ________ ligands, and is located in _________.
bacteria, unmethylated CpG-rich DNA, endosomes
_____ has a link to TLR4
_________________ generally recognize bacterial cell wall components
____________ recognize pathogens as well as intracellular damage or inury
________ activates inflammation and causes fever and synthesis of acute-phase proteins in the liver
__________ activates endothelial cells and neutrophils, fever, acute-phase proteins, and cachexia
________ recruits and activates neutrophils
________ stimulates IFN-gamma synthesis and increased cytolytic activity of NK cells
_______ induce the antiviral state and increase class I MHC expression and activate NK cells
Type I IFNs
_____ synthesizes acute-phase proteins
__________ is a cytokine best known for its potent anti-viral activity
_____ _______ is the series of intracellular events in which antigen presenting cells make antigens available or visible to T cells
____ binds to the domain of MHC class I
____ binds to the domain of MHC class II
The key players of the endocytic antigen processing pathway are:
MHC class II, HLA-DM, low pH, Proteases, invariant chain
________ _____ directs class II away from typical secretory pathway to endocytic pathway and blocks peptide loading in the ER.
______ acts as a chaperone or catalyst to facilitate exchange of CLIP with antigenic peptides
The essential components of the cytosolic antigen processing pathway are:
MHC class I, Proteasome, TAP, Peptide loading complex
____ is a transporter that shuttles peptides from cytosol to ER
____________ is the pathway of antigen processing in which exogenous antigens are presented by MHC class I
to traverse the endothelial layer and move into tissues, leukocytes undergo a process known as ____ ________.
Many complement proteins are enzymes constitutively present in circulation in a functionally inactive form, known as:
Plasma concentrations of C-Reactive Protein are often used as a diagnostic of ongoing infection. This protein is produced by the liver in response to elevated levels of which cytokine combinations?
Il-1 and IL-6
which cytokine is produces by dendritic cells and macrophages, and stimulates the production of IFN-gamma by NK cells and T cells
TLR recognizes bacterial liposaccaride with the help of
LPS-binding protein , MD2, and CD14
______________ are cytosolic sensors of viral RNA that respond to viral nucleic acids by inducing the expression of anti-viral cytokines such as type I interferon
what cell type produces more interferon alpha than other cells
plasmacytoid dendritic cells
interferon gamma activates _______
The scientists that provided experimental evidence of MHC restriction and later went on to win the Nobel Prize for this work were:
Zinkernagel and Doherty
What types of cells express MHC class II?
B cells, dendritic cells, and macrophage
immunoproteasome is induced by
one type of variant is an ________
having two identical alleles of the same gene
having two distinct alleles of the same gene
the collective set of MHC alleles present on an individual chromosome is a ___________
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Parham Ch. 3
Combined Immune Exam 1
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
lecture 24: eukaryotic transcriptional regulation
Lecture 22: the genetic code