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55 terms

Test 1

Chapter 1, 2, 5, 16, 18, 22 in Rau's
STUDY
PLAY
(Increased and unpleasant sensitivity to all sensory modalities)
Hyperesthesia
(Increased unpleasant abnormal feeling from mildly uncomfortable stimuli
Hyperpathia
(painful feeling from gentle stimuli)
Allodynia
Enzyme that deactivates catalcholomines
COMT = catechol O-methyltransferase; MAO (monoamine oxidase)
the dose of a drug that produces 50% of the maximal effect
ED50
Combination of anti-depresants and analgesics are used to treat . . what kind of pain?
chronic
non-steroidal and anti-inflammatory are used to treat what kind of pain?
moderate
Opioids or narcotic analgesics are used to treat what kind of pain?
moderate or severe pain
3 drugs used to treat Myasthenia Gravis
Neostigmine & Pyridostigmine (Edrophonium is used to diagnose Myasthenia Gravis)
Used to treat fascilulations
nondepolarizing agent
There are 3 types of Opiod receptors . . .
mu, kappa, and delta & several subtypes
The most serious side effect of the opioid antagonists is
Respiratory Depression
The two major control systems in the body are
Nervous system & Endocrine System
The peripheral nervous system is made up of
Sensory neurons, Motor neurons, Autonomic nervous system (1) parasympathetic nervous system (2) sympathetic nervous system
The branches of the parasympathetic nervous system
craniosacral
The neurotransmitter norepinephrine is released at the
Sympathetic neuroeffector site
How is the neurotransmitter acetylcholine inactivated at the parasympathetic terminal receptor site
cholinesterase, acetylcholinesterase, through hydrolysis of an enzyme, and by acetylcholine itself that bind to an autoreceptor
Is it true that there is little or no direct sympathetic innervation of airway smooth muscle in the human lung?
True
Is it true that the pulmonary circulation is innervated by both parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves?
True
Is it true that there is evidence of a branch of nerves that are neither parasympathetic nor sympathetic and can cause relaxation of airway smooth muscle?
True
Is it true that muscarinic receptors are found in skeletal muscle
False
Is it true that nicotine is capable of stimulating both sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic cholinergic receptors
True
The somatic portion of the nervous system controls what (circle all that apply)
Controls voluntary conscious control
There are other receptors in the central nervous system (brain) that respond to dopamine, a chemical precursor of norepinephrine, and are therefore termed
Dopaminergic
used to promote bronchodilation, also increase catecholamines and increase ventilation
Methylxanthines
What are two Respiratory Stimulants
Caffeine & Theophylline
Cyclic AMP
increases Bronchodilation
Cyclic GMP
causes Bronchoconstriction
The muscarinic effect is seen mainly at which site
Parasympathetic neuroeffector site
Acetylcholine is inactivated by
cholinesterase
Which description is not appropriate for atropine? a) Antinicotinic b) Antimuscarinic c) Parasympatholytic d) Cholinergic antagonist
Anti-nicotinic
On administering a dose of atropine to your patient what effects would you expect to see?
Dry secretions, bronchodilation, antidiarrheal, urinary retention, tachycardia
As a practitioner, you would expect which parts of the physical examination to be affected by a parasympatholytic agent
Dry secretions, bronchodilation, antidiarrheal, urinary retention, tachycardia
We do not use beta-blockers for asthmatics because it causes
broncho constriction
What is the direct-acting cholinergic agent often used in bronchial challenge tests to assess the degree of airway activity
Metacholine
Which type of impulses travel from the brain to the neuroeffector sites
somatic motor neurons & efferent neurons
Because dopamine is chemically similar to epinephrine and stimulates alpha and beta receptors, dopamintergic receptors are classified as a type of
adrenergic
This relaxant factor, which produces vasodilation and is mediated by an increase in intracellular cGMP, has been identified as
Nitric Oxide (NO)
The exact neurotransmitter responsible for relaxation responses mediated by NANC (non-adrenergic non-cholinergic) inhibitory nerves is under investigation
Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP)
Factors that generally increase the length of neuromuscualr blockade activity
age & hepatic or renal failure
Because API agents are derived from human plasma there is a risk of
disease transmission
may relieve nictine withdrawal by slowing the normal reuptake of dopamine or preventing its breakdown in the central nervous system
Bupropion (Zyban)
one of the most serious complications that can occur with succinylcholine
malignant hyperthermia
Which drug treats malignant hyperthermia
Dantrolene
This blocks the sensation produced by smoking, thereby breaking the cycle of nicotine addiction
Varenicline (Chantix)
considered to be the location of thought, memory, self-awareness, and personality. Perception of sensation and control of body movement, including speech, are also represented in specific areas of the . . .
the cortex
as a relay station for information traveling to and from the cortex. It also integrates and modulates autonomic functions; this function occurs primarily in the
hypothalamus
contains the control areas for autonomic functions such as breathing and cardiovascular control, as well as the areas responsible for alertness, the reticular activating system
brainstem or medulla
What is the recommended dose of nitric oxide
20 ppm whose dose can be increased to 80 ppm.
is indicated for type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus in adults patients needing to control hyperglycemia (when the glucose is >300)
Exubera
affects the fine motor control and coordinates movement
Cerebellum
Durgs that affect the central nervous system (CNS) are used to affect
perception and mood
functions as a relay station for information traveling to and from the cortex
Midbrain
The initial depolarization causes uncoordinated skeletal muscle contractions referred to as
fasciculations
Cholinergic receptors can be subdivided into two other types of receptors
the muscarinic and nicotinic